Thursday, October 31, 2019

The effect of family eldercare responsibilities on labour market Research Proposal - 1

The effect of family eldercare responsibilities on labour market involvement in South Africa and Canada - Research Proposal Example Gerontological research nowadays has placed emphasis more often on trends of family or informal care for the elderly in less developed countries Without the basic social services and assistance the vulnerable elderly in LDCs are a group exposed to significant risk. Nevertheless, according to Williams (2000), at present, majority of empirical findings indicate that a significant portion of the elderly population in developing countries depends on their own job or their families as their sole protection at later life periods. One important variable in the subject matter of family elder care is the participation rate of women in the labour force. Globally, the proportion of women in the work force grew significantly between 1970 and 1990 not including sub-Saharan Africa and ex-USSR where it dropped to some extent (Mueller 2000, 2). Former USSR, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern and Southeast Asia have the highest rates whereas Southern and Western Asia and North Africa have the lowest (Muelle r 2000, 2-3). The rate of women’s labour force involvement may be indicative of the level of eldercare responsibility placed on women. A. Objective of the Research This study will try to compare the influence of family eldercare on the labour market, specifically the involvement of women in the work force, of South Africa (developing country) and Canada (developed country). It is the objective of this study to contribute to the insufficient understanding of the impact of informal or family care of the elderly on the composition of the labour market in developing and developed nations. B. Research Questions The primary question that this study will try to answer is what is the effect of family eldercare on the labour market of South Africa and Canada? More specifically, this study will attempt to address the following questions: a. Do women feel or think that they are more obliged to take care of the elderly in their families than their male counterparts? b. What is the typica l age at which working women initially take up obligations of eldercare? c. Do women decide to leave the work force if the obligation of caring for the elderly becomes onerous? C. Significance of Research Even though extensive consideration has been conferred over the recent years to the difficult endeavour of building equal status for men and women in the labour market, there have been comparatively very few methodical attempts to evaluate or measure the effect of family or informal eldercare obligations on males’ and females’ employment prospects, in that case, of labourers generally. Hence, this study hopes to give explanation of the implications for labour force involvement of choices made by women to assume eldercare responsibilities. II. Review of Related Literature Because of the dearth of available literature on the impact of family eldercare responsibilities on the labour market of South Africa and China the researcher will present in this section piecemeal in formation about ageing and the labour market of each of the two aforementioned countries. The next section will generally discuss the implication of family eldercare obligations on the labour market of both developing and developed countries. Nevertheless, it is important, above all, to discuss first the theoretical foundation of this study. A. Theoretical Paradigm In conceptualising the labour market in the perspective of the family, time distribution frameworks are suitable. The influential work

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Proposal for PHD in business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Proposal for PHD in business - Essay Example In case the cash invested results in wealth creation but by an amount less than the cash invested and the resources used, society is poorer to the extent of the loss, as the borrower must repay the debt by compensating for the loss out of existing wealth owned or acquired by him/her. The same applies to cases in which invested cash is totally lost, no wealth creation having taken place. In both cases a redistribution of wealth in favor of the creditors is involved" (Siddiqi, 2007). This paper is an examination of actual investment has increased in the past few years that the tawarruq system is in place. Investment is one the path through which wealth creation can occur. We expect the tawarruq system to aid business process and investment so as to further improve the economy. Other variables that may be affected in the process are interest rates, exchange rates, consumption and bank's profitability. The three are macroeconomic variables while the last is a microeconomic variables. We particularly desire that people do not owe money for consumption purposes alone but for investment. The research will commence with the review of related literature. ... B. Research Questions a. What is the tawarruq system's impact on Saudi Arabia's over-all level of investment b. What is the tawarruq system's impact on Saudi Arabia's over-all level of consumption c. What is the effect of the tawarruq system on Saudi Arabia's interest rates d. What is the effect of the tawarruq system on Saudi Arabia's exchange rate e. What is the impact of the tawarruq system on banks' profitability C. Methods and Procedures The research will commence with the review of related literature. This is where we identify the gaps in the study that need to be filled. The literature review will also provide us a knowledge of the depth of current and previous researches on the topic. The review will also include desk research of recent news about the conduct of the business and the related figures. Data mining for the necessary figures will follow. We will particularly mine the data for the over-all tawarruq level of lending (the amount of lending per year) for the last 10 years, the figures for investment, consumption, interest rate and exchange rate for the last 10 years. To establish the relationship between these variables, we will use simple regression of the time series analysis. An econometric software, Eviews 4 will be particularly used to test the relationship. The possible outcomes are significant or not significant and whether the direction is positive or negative. D. Goals and Objectives This paper wishes to trace the practice of the tawarruq lending system in Saudi Arabia and its impact on wealth creation primarily the investment variable. Lending is a path to consumption or investment and it is said to create wealth if it goes to the latter. In this paper we particularly examine

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Critique Of The Movie For Colored Girls English Literature Essay

Critique Of The Movie For Colored Girls English Literature Essay Problems that face women presented in the movie: All these women unknown to them cross paths and their lives interact throughout the movie. The movie is structured such that each of the women has their own stories and problems that are facing them. The movie is based on the problems that the women were facing at the period of the production of the play in 1975. Time has changed but the issues that were facing the women in the 1970s are still relevant in this day and age. This are still the same issues that women are facing in our current millennium. The movie slowly develops and all this women come together to openly share their troubles. The movie mainly revolves around the problems that the cast of nine African-American are facing in their lives. The issues presented in the movie mainly consist of HIV/STDS, rape, abortion, abandonment, infidelity and male cruelty. The paper is going to pick the theme of HIV and STDs, rape and infidelity and male dominance. HIV and STDs: The text has highlighted this as one of the major problem that faces women in the world. Many of them are infected by their unfaithful partner and are oblivious to the fact that they are infected until the symptoms of the infection start to show. The movie clearly has approached the issue of HIV and STDs in the society. The first character to present this theme is Kelly. Accompanied by her husband she visits a physician who after conducting a few tests tells her that she has an untreated sexually transmitted disease that she has had for a long time. The doctor explains to her n her husband that the untreated sexually transmitted infection has robbed her of her ability to have child bearing ability since her womb has become weakened. Kelly is distraught and run wait leaving her husband at the doctors office. Later that night at their home Kelly confesses to her husband what had really transpired so that she contracted the infection. She explains to him that long before the two were married she was having a sexual relationship with a man who unknown to her was having a sexual relationship with a friend of hers. She traces her infection to this incident in her life which she greatly regrets since it had caused her infertility. H er husband however is supportive and tells him that he loves her despite the incident. He decides to stand by her in her problems. This theme is also brought out by Jo who we see confronting her husband on his infidelity. Jo has recently discovered that her husband was having sexual relationships with other men. She had discovered this while the two were at an opera and Jo caught her husband exchanging glances with another man. She later had taken a HIV test which turned out to be positive. She discovers that her husband through his relationship had infected her with HIV and she asks him not to be sorry for anything since he knowingly committed the infidelity. She kicks him out of her house and she goes to share her problems with the other women in the movie. Juanita offers Jo comfort and readily offers her advice on how to live positively even with HIV. Juanita is on the forefront and advices women on the use of condoms so as to avoid unnecessary problems from sex. Rape: The text has discussed rape and has shown that in our present time the rate of rape is still high most of the rape cases go unnoticed and many women shy away from reporting such cases due to the stigma and shame that is attached to rape. Mainly in the developing world rape and sexual harassment is still a serious problem that faces women all around the world. The movie has effectively presented this plight. In the movie we see a number of rapes and sexual belittling of women which is a problem that is still face women in our current times. Yasmine in the movie is having what looks like a good time at a restaurant with a man named Bill at a restaurant. She later lets Bill into her house and he takes advantage of her. He undresses and undresses her. Her forces himself onto her, first he fiercely assaults her before raping her. Yasmine ends up in hospital and even with Kellys husband trying to ask her about the rape she offers no information but rather offers him a poem as her answer. We later learn in the movie that Billy had been stabbed by another woman who he had tried to rape also. The theme is advanced further in the movie in the scene where Alice is furious and bursts into Tangies apartment to confront her about her advising Nyla to go to the abortionists. In the ensuing argument it becomes apparent that Tangie is also a victim of rape. From the argument we learn that Tangies grandfather who was Alices father had raped her. It is also apparent that Tangies grandfather had had his way with Nyla. Alice also reveals that her father had raped her and taken her virginity at an early age. The scene also reveals that Alices father had forced her to have a baby with an old white man when she was just fifteen. The men that they had trusted the most and who were supposed to protect them had been the same people who had hurt them. Infidelity and male dominance: The movie also furthers this theme. This is shown first by the incident of Kelly contracting a sexually transmitted disease. She discloses to her husband that her previous lover was having a sexual relationship with her friend. It was this infidelity that had cost her the ability to bear children. Jos husband is always coming home late and when she confronted him at one point he claims that his phone battery had died. Jos husband had also infected her with HIV since he was having extra marital sexual relationships with other men. She confronts him about it and it becomes apparent that he was having unprotected sex with other men and thus had contracted HIV which he had passed on to his wife. Male dominance is also shown by Jos husband who claims that since Jo earns more than he does and provides for the family he feels that he has been robbed of his masculinity and has to succumb to her control. Crystals husband also exemplifies male dominance and sheer cruelty when he come home to find a man in the drive way. He quickly assumes that the man is his wifes lover and he storms into the house to confront her about it. He shouts and abuses her and eventually takes their children and he drops out of their apartment window. The children die from the fall. Jo then realizes the level of abuse that Crystal has to go through every day. Crystal had to suffer through this due to her husbands machismo that asserts to him that he had dominance over her since she was his wife and she was a woman. Bill also furthers the theme of male dominance since he forces himself on women so is Alices father who raped her and robbed her of her virginity. Male dominance in the movie has been built up on the lines of viewing women as sexual objects At the end of the movie all the women meet at the top of balcony and they all discuss openly their problems. They stand by each other and offer each other comfort through their struggles. They prove to the audience that women need to stick together and support each other through their problems.

Friday, October 25, 2019

David Gutersons Snow Falling on Cedars Essay examples -- Guterson Sno

David Guterson's Snow Falling on Cedars The early 1940’s were tough times for many Japanese living in America. This is all due to the Japanese and American conflict in World War II, after Japan decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. After this incident many Japanese-Americans were discriminated against and were thought of as bad Japanese instead of the Americans they were. A lot of these Japanese-Americans were unfairly sent to internment camps in the United States. This is also true of the incidents that take place in the fictional novel Snow Falling On Cedars, by David Guterson. The discrimination all started at about 8:00 AM on December 7, 1941. At this time the Japanese assembled a fleet of planes and attacked Pearl Harbor, which is located off the shore of Hawaii. The Japanese decided to attack the United States because the U.S. enforced an oil embargo against Japan. This attack included a striking force of 353 Japanese aircraft. This was done by total surprise, before there was even a formal declaration of war. This was a well-planned time for the attack seeing how there were about 100 of the United States ships present on that day. At the same time there was an attack on a nearby field. This attack destroyed 18 of the United States aircraft (Pearl 1). During the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, there were 127,000 people of Japanese decent that were living in America. Many of the Americans began to fear that these people were going to turn on America and help out their country of ancestry. The following quote shows what it was like for many Japanese living in America. Some 1,500 â€Å"enemy aliens† who were thought to have connections with Japan were immediately rounded up and interned by the De... ...s, the eyes of a man hiding something (269).† The Americans judge the Kabuo because of his squinted Japanese eyes. They think that his eyes show that he is hiding his guilt. The novel Snow Falling On Cedars shows a lot of the same prejudice that was around in the real world during World War II. This book was just a fictional story, but it definitely did deal with the situation of the real world at that time. Hopefully one day all races and ethnicities can unite and live in one place with out prejudice. Works Cited Arrington, Leonard. The Price of Prejudice. Logan, Utah: The Faculty Association Utah State University, 1962 Guterson, David. Snow Falling on Cedars. New York: Vintage Books, 1995 â€Å"Korematsu V. US† â€Å"Pearl Harbor: Remembered†

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Humans In Their Environment Essay

Robert Gray, Arthur Miller and Rachel Carson are writers that each explores the 20th century interaction and relationship between humans and their environment. From their texts ‘The meatworks’, ‘North Coast Town’, ‘Death of a Salesman’ and ‘Silent Spring’ we learn of conflict between man and his environment-which can be everything from man’s surrounding area, conditions and influences. And this conflict harms both man and nature causing degradation, exploitation and destruction for nature whilst isolation, alienation and soulessness for man. Robert Gray is a poet who is openly concerned about the state and truths of our human interactions with the physical and natural environments. Gray’s poems’ contain themes of a negative and depressing quality but his vivid use of imagery creates a response in the reader that is both thoughtful and dramatic. We see the results of man’s conflict with his environment- degradation, exploitation and destruction of nature, whilst also the isolation, alienation and soulessness it creates for man. In ‘The Meatworks’ Gray focuses upon what he sees as the brutal and inhumane slaughter of animals. Gray is disgusted and possesses a negative opinion about our treatment and destruction of the natural environment and reveals his view on the timeless issue about the right for all living things to live an untroubled existence, we see this clearly in his use of many concrete images and figurative language. These vivid and concrete images he creates paint a picture of the degradation, exploitation and destruction of the beauty of the natural environment-its animals, whilst it also destroys himself within for witnessing these horrid acts, isolating, alienating and making him soulless. The horrid destruction of nature can be seen through the images ‘the pigs fear made them mount one another at the last minute’ This shows the pain, distress and suffering this brutality is causing the animals, they are in pure fear and petrified knowing that they will die, running o n adrenalin to mate and procreate before death to ensure the continuation of their kind. Personification is used in great effect in his description of his activities- directly linking mankind to the killing and brutality he witnesses. Examples include, ‘arm-thick corkscrews’, ‘chomping bloody mouth-‘ and ‘shaped into a penis’. These image enforce that man’s  hand (arm) is responsible for these brutal acts, the corkscrews grinding the bodies. The ‘chomping bloody mouth’ is a metaphor reinforcing the greed of human consumption. And the image of the penis is to signify that these horrid acts are done specifically by man. Witnessing all this brutal killing destroys Gray within himself. When he was inside the surroundings of the meatworks he isolated himself, alienated from the others by the brutality and when outside in the beauty of nature he felt so soulless that in the natural setting he attempts to punish and cleanse himself from what he knows he had done wrong ‘I’d scoop up shell grit’; this substance is hard, showing his distaste and punishing himself. ‘And scrub my hands’, wanting to be cleansed of responsibility, like Pontius Pilate, but it does not fully release him from fault. The power of this poem inspires in the responder an attitude of shock and horror at the scenes depicted, sharing the revulsion of the persona. Robert Gray’s ‘North Coast Town’ focuses upon what Gray sees as the destruction of our physical and natural environment-the spread of our destructive, ugly and horrid human development and spread of urbanization, which also creates the dehumanization, and alienation for man. Like ‘The Meatworks’ its message of disgust concerning the conflict between man and his environment is shown through strong images. For instance the horrid image of an exploited beach at the start of the poem is shown well with the use of its sensual words, the ‘sight’ of the Shell Station-an eyesore, the slushy ‘feel’ of the water at a tap, the disgusting ‘smell’ of the vandals’ lavatory, the unattractive ‘sound’ of a urinal and the horrid ‘taste’ of the floury apple. Other images that are created are the metaphor involving the car ‘car after car now’ showing the speed and strength of human devel opment is closing in upon nature. Furthermore the car is one of the major sources of pollution and destruction of our world, and its use is also intended to show that the car is the ‘vehicle’ for the spread of destruction. Travelling through the north coast town the persona further sees the unattractiveness and eyesores of human development before creating the strongest imagery in the last stanza, ‘The place is becoming chrome, tile-facing, and plate-glass: they’re making California’ its’ meaning is that they are creating and copying something that is a culture change and totally  unnatural to these surroundings. But the persona has left the strongest message for his final line, ‘Pass an abo, not attempting to hitch, outside town.’ This line shows the dehumanization and alienation the spread of development has created. This lonely soul is dejected and isolated with his world and culture having been destroyed within his own land. . The power of this poem inspires in the responder an attitude of shock and horror at the scenes depicted, sharing the revulsion of the persona. The extract from Rachel Carson’s book ‘Silent Spring’, in the stimulus booklet, similarly to Gray, looks at the destructive effects man has on his environment. Carson outlines a scenario in a fable in which a town in America gradually kills itself. The death ‘Everywhere was a shadow of death’ has nothing to do with war or natural disaster but with man’s carelessness and lack of foresight into the world around him ‘The people had done it themselves’. ‘On the mornings that had once throbbed with dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now no sound; only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.’ This quote alone gives a massive contrast, we see the hype of activity the nature used to be to contrasted to the stillness and silence created through the destruction of human development. In this piece written in the 1960’s, Rachel Carson gives the world a wake-up call about the destruction of our natural world, it is a fable, and as such with any fable it gives a moral lesson- that man’s conflict with his environment is wrong, with degradation, and destruction of nature, which also harms and affects man. The power of this piece inspires in the responder an attitude of shock and horror at the events depicted, sharing the revulsion of the persona. Arthur Miller’s ‘Death of a Salesman’ focuses upon the affects of the environment on man in the ever-lasting conflict between man and his environment. Willy Loman is a man that hindered and a victim of his environment that has been created by other men. The environment is both the physical, and social environment he endures, living in America at a time of consumerism, heightened capitalism and the rapid urbanization of the cities  and towns. Through this consumer and capitalism driven society he lives in the ideal of the American Dream, where people will work hard and amass money and enjoy a comfortable lifestyle. But this capitalist system of free enterprise and big business undoubtedly had it rewards. Yet it was not without its problems too, and in Willy Loman we see a man who has fallen foul of this system. Willy is painfully a victim of this system, he is ‘worked out’ and completely loyal to the system, but is bewildered at his lack of success. His failure creates a dejected, isolated, alienated and soulless man completely confused with illusions. In this time of great urbanization and development Willy Loman is also affected by his physical environment. In a poignant moment in the play we see him planting seeds in his back yard in a last futile effort to leave something of value behind, but his efforts are hindered by what is said in Arthur Miller’s stage directions’ †angry glow of orange’ ‘apartment houses around the small, fragile-seeming house’. This metaphor by Miller shows that through the conflict between man and his environment it resulted in human urbanization and this hurts even man, with Willy Loman completely constrained by his environment on all sides ‘We don’t belong in this nuthouse of a city. We shouls be mixing cement on some open plain†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ The power of this piece inspires in the responder empathy and sympathy, and see the wrongs of the results of this conflict between man and his environment. Robert Gray, Arthur Miller and Rachel Carson are writers that each explores the 20th century interaction and relationship between humans and their environment. From their texts ‘The meatworks’, ‘North Coast Town’, ‘Death of a Salesman’ and ‘Silent Spring’ we learnt of the conflict between man and his environment. And this conflict can harms both man and nature causing degradation, exploitation and destruction for nature whilst isolation, alienation and soulessness for man.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

How Did Mass Media Influence Adolescents and Children in the Last Ten Years? Essay

TV Media’s Influence on Child Development http://www. cleancutmedia. com/tv-shows/tv-medias-influence-on-child-development â€Å"Several risks to pediatric health are literally staring children in the face. It’s time to call the doctor. † Want to share this old, but great article from the Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin. Very interesting points about how media cuts into many issues such as obesity, eating disorders, attention disorders, violence, sex, and drug use and how Medical Professionals need to deeply consider how much media has an influence on the development of these. As this fairly long article is well written, I will simply excerpt huge chunks of it. I’ve copied out significant paragraphs and bolded the main points. Hope it is helpful. Full Article  Here. The most important thing we’ve learned, So far as children are concerned, Is never, never, never let Them near your television set†¦ They sit and stare and stare and sit Until they’re hypnotized by it†¦ Did you ever wonder exactly what This does to your beloved tot? His brain becomes as soft as cheese His powers of thinking rust and freeze He cannot think—he only sees! the Oompa-Loompas in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory TV Media on Child Development The Oompa-Loompas’ cautionary song about the hypnotic effects of television on children may have seemed alarmist in 1964 when Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was first published, but now its lyrics seem almost understated. In Roald Dahl’s story, television addict Mike Teavee pays for his obs ession by getting shrunk to the size of an actor on a television screen. Dahl exaggerates the effects of excessive viewing, but for children glued to media screens today, the consequences may be more insidious and just as hazardous. Decades of research have established that television and other screen media—movies, the Internet, and video games—constitute a powerful environmental influence on children’s health and development, according to the Center on Media and Child Health at Children’s Hospital Boston. American children aged 8 to 18 spend an average of 6 hours and 21 minutes daily using media—more time than they spend in school or with their parents. And the risks of so much time spent in thrall to their screens are serious. More than 2,200 studies have linked media use and aggressive behavior. By age 18, a child will, on average, have witnessed 200,000 acts of violence, including 18,000 murders. Children’s programs—shows that one would expect to be free of violence—average 14 violent acts per hour, 8 more than adult programs. For adolescents, the influence of violence in media may even prove fatal: the top three causes of death among 15- to 19-year-olds all involve accidental or intended violence. Media’s Influence on the Mind Like the Oompa-Loompas, Michael Rich ’91 understands the powerful clutch media can have on the mind, especially the mind of a child. So well has research documented the connection between watching violence on television and aggressive behavior, he says, that the correlation is â€Å"stronger than those linking calcium with bone density and passive smoke with lung cancer. † Rich, a pediatrician and former filmmaker who worked for two years with the famed Japanese director Akira Kurosawa, directs the Center on Media and Child Health. Much of Rich’s research has focused on the dangers stemming from the violence depicted on television and, more recently, the violence that permeates video games. One 2004 study by another group compared the physiological responses of adults playing four different video games, two with storylines and two without. The researchers found that story-based video games led to significantly more character and game identification and increased physiological arousal. Other studies have documented how such physiological responses can lead to aggression. â€Å"If you watch a violent show and a half hour later go to a store where someone cuts you in line, you’re more likely to respond aggressively,† Rich says. â€Å"Over time, small incidents accumulate and form patterns of violent behavior. What matters is that you learn from what you experience. † And by learning, he means the hardwired kind. â€Å"Brain mapping indicates that media violence is processed along primitive survival pathways and stored in long-term memory,† he says. In other words, we embed media violence deeply in our brains. In work with functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, Rich’s team has discovered that â€Å"the brain regions activated when viewing violence onscreen are the same ones that light up when those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder relive their traumas. † Alvin Poussaint, founder of the Media Center at the Judge Baker Children’s Center and an HMS professor of psychiatry, says that the way children learn from television can cause another form of lasting harm. â€Å"If children watch ‘edutainment’—shows that teach through song and dance—they begin to associate learning with an entertainment format and expect that format when they go to school,† he says. â€Å"But teachers aren’t going to sing and dance for them. So then children complain that school is boring. Compared to the fast-paced, exciting shows they’re used to on television, it is boring. Nothing will meet that standard. Television constantly ups the ante. † Some of the newest research suggests that television and the multimedia world in which children simultaneously watch MTV, listen to iPods, and chat on the Internet may be contributing to the increase in diagnoses of attention disorders. Rich believes that fMRI studies on attention, which are only now just getting started, will help establish whether a connection exists. Certainly, researchers have found a correlation between media use and reading. â€Å"Kids who watch the most television don’t do as well in school,† says Poussaint. Television is not the best way to learn; it’s too passive and noninteractive. † A 2003 study found that toddlers and older children with screen media in their bedrooms learned to read later and read less than those with no screen media in their rooms. The Oompa-Loompas begin to seem like prophets. Media can be a Good Influence on Development John Livings tone ’58, a pediatric psychiatrist at McLean Hospital, an HMS assistant professor, and a consultant to the television industry, is campaigning for PBS to embed emotional literacy in its new programming and for the cable industry to embrace health-risk standards. Television shows can model positive ways for handling feelings,† he says. â€Å"Social learning research shows that when children watch likable characters struggling with decision-making, they can learn better impulse control, especially when they see the realistic results of the choices the characters made. † The power of prosocial programming can be so strong, Livingstone adds, that even violent content—when portrayed realistically and in the context of outcomes—can be beneficial. â€Å"If it’s handled well,† he says, â€Å"violence with consequences can promote socially responsible behavior. Let’s say a show features a gang of kids on a street. In one scenario, a gang member remarks that a passing kid looks like a wimp and says, ‘Let’s punch him out. ’ The group beats him up. † â€Å"In a better scenario,† Livingstone says, â€Å"the gang member remarks that a passing kid looks like a wimp and says, ‘Let’s punch him out. ’ But this time a likable gang member speaks up against the plan, then another and another. Half the group takes off in protest. The other half beats the boy up and later faces legal and parental repercussions. The program could retain its dramatic tension while modeling a socially acceptable option in the teenager’s world. † Change Media Intake, Change Everything Else Strasburger, who researches media’s effects on children and adolescents at the University of New Mexico, also wants to promote media literacy, but finds it difficult to convince physicians, parents, and teachers that the issue should take priority. â€Å"When I consulted with the National Parent Teacher Association,† he says, â€Å"its leaders had a hundred concerns on their list, and media literacy was nowhere near the top. They wanted to talk about obesity, eating disorders, and bullying, but didn’t realize that media affect all those problems. Many parents and teachers believe media have a minor influence. That might have been true when they were growing up, but it sure isn’t the case now. † Poussaint adds that parents should play an important role. â€Å"Parents need to watch television with their children and explain what’s make-believe,† he says. â€Å"Commercials are especially insidious, because children don’t begin to understand the persuasive intent of ads until about age eight. Commercials also pit children against parents. Television tells children a particular candy bar will make them happy and, when parents refuse to allow it, the children see their parents as denying them this happiness. † Strasburger says some of this work can be done in school. â€Å"We need to teach kids skepticism about advertising and television programming,† he says. â€Å"They should understand, for example, why a commercial or show airs when it does. We already have a system in place for teaching media literacy: sex and drug education programs in schools. Both could incorporate media literacy, and teachers could take the lead. †

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

60 Words for Types of Restaurants

60 Words for Types of Restaurants 60 Words for Types of Restaurants 60 Words for Types of Restaurants By Mark Nichol This post lists dozens of words, many adopted from foreign languages that describe a specific type of restaurant. (Restaurant itself stems from a Latin verb meaning â€Å"restore.†) 1. bar: an establishment where liquor and sometimes food are served 2. bar and grill: an establishment that features a bar but also serves food 3. barroom: see bar 4. beanery: slang for an informal restaurant 5. bistro (French, â€Å"proprietor of a tavern†): a small, informal restaurant, bar, or nightclub 6. boà ®te (French, â€Å"box†): see nightclub 7. brasserie (French, â€Å"brewery†): an informal restaurant, often one serving French food 8. buffet (French, â€Å"counter†): a self-serve restaurant; also, in British English, a small informal restaurant at a railway station 9. cabaret (French; ultimately from Latin camera, â€Å"chamber†): a restaurant that serves liquor and features live entertainment; also, the entertainment at such an establishment 10. cafà © (French, â€Å"coffee†): a small, informal restaurant 11. cafeteria (American Spanish, â€Å"coffeehouse†): see luncheonette; also, an informal, self-serve restaurant 12. caff (British English slang for cafà ©): see cafà © 13. canteen: a snack bar or small cafeteria; also, a bar or store at a military post, an informal social club, a flask for carrying liquids, or a chest for carrying or storing bottles or utensils 14. chophouse: slang for restaurant 15. coffee shop: a small, informal restaurant 16. coffee room: see coffeehouse 17. coffeehouse: an informal establishment that serves coffee and often refreshments 18. delicatessen (German, â€Å"delicacy†): an establishment where already-prepared food is sold and sometimes served; often abbreviated to deli 19. diner: an informal restaurant, originally one resembling a dining car on a train 20. drive-in: a restaurant, usually one serving fast food, that serves food ready to eat in one’s parked car or packaged to take home 21. eatery: see luncheonette 22. eating house: an informal restaurant, often one serving inexpensive and/or mediocre food 23. estaminet (French, â€Å"tavern†): see cafà © 24. fast-food place: an informal establishment where prepared food is served quickly 25. food court: an area within a shopping mall with multiple fast-food restaurants 26. food truck: a truck or van that serves prepackaged food or food cooked in the vehicle 27. greasy spoon (American slang, from the notion of a place with unclean eating utensils): see â€Å"eating house† 28. grill: an informal restaurant 29. grillroom: see grill 30. hamburger stand: a small fast-food restaurant specializing in hamburgers 31. hash house: an inexpensive restaurant 32. hashery: see â€Å"hash house† 33. hot dog stand: a small fast-food restaurant specializing in hot dogs 34. inn: see tavern; also, sometimes one offering lodging 35. joint: slang for an informal restaurant or bar; also, slang for prison or a disreputable entertainment venue, and has multiple other unrelated meanings 36. lunch counter: see luncheonette; also, a counter inside a store at which food is served 37. lunch wagon: see diner 38. luncheonette: a small restaurant that offers lunch, often self-serve 39. lunchroom: see luncheonette; also, a room at a school for eating lunch sold there or brought from home 40. nightclub: an establishment serving food and drink and featuring live entertainment 41. nightspot: see nightclub 42–43. nitery (or niterie): see nightclub 44. pizzeria (Italian, â€Å"place where pizza is served,† from pizza, â€Å"bite†): a restaurant where pizzas and other Italian dishes are served 45. pothouse: see tavern; also, as pot house, a house where marijuana is grown and/or sold 46. pub (short for â€Å"public house†): see tavern 47. rathskeller (obsolete German, â€Å"council cellar,† from its origins as an establishment in the cellar of a town hall): a restaurant or tavern, usually one located in a basement 48. ristorante (Italian, â€Å"restaurant†): a restaurant serving Italian food 49. roadhouse: an establishment outside city limits that may serve food as well as liquor and features live or recorded music 50. saloon: see bar 51. supper club: see nightclub 52. snack bar: an establishment at which snacks are served at a counter 53. soda fountain: an establishment or area within a store for serving beverages, ice cream, and sometimes food 54. steakhouse: a restaurant specializing in beef dishes 55. taqueria (Spanish, â€Å"place where tacos are served†): an informal restaurant serving Mexican food 56. tavern: an establishment where liquor and sometimes food are served 57. tea shop (British English): see teahouse 58. teahouse: a restaurant where tea and refreshments are served 59. tearoom: see teahouse 60. trattoria (Italian, â€Å"establishment of a restaurateur,† from a word for treat): a small restaurant, usually one serving Italian food Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? 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Monday, October 21, 2019

Countershading Definition and Examples

Countershading Definition and Examples Countershading is a type of coloration commonly found in animals and means that the animals back (dorsal side) is dark while its underside (ventral side) is light. This shading helps an animal blend in with its surroundings. Description In the ocean, countershading camouflages an animal from predators or prey. When viewed from below, an animals lighter belly would blend in with the lighter sky above. When viewed from above, its darker back would blend in with the ocean bottom underneath. Countershading in the Military Countershading has also had military applications. German and U.S. military planes used countershading to hide from their enemies by  painting the bottom of the plane white and the top of the plane to match the color of the surrounding area.   Reverse Countershading Theres also reverse countershading, light on top and dark on the underside, which can be seen in skunks and honey badgers. Reverse countershading is typically seen in animals with strong natural defenses.   Alternate Spellings: Counter Shading, Counter-Shading Several rorqual whales are counter-shaded, including fin whales, humpback whales, and minke whales.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Admiral Yi Sun Shin of Korea

Admiral Yi Sun Shin of Korea Admiral Yi Sun Shin of Joseon Korea is revered today in both North Korea and South Korea. Indeed, attitudes toward the great naval commander verge on worshipful in South Korea, and Yi appears in several television dramas, including the eponymous Immortal Admiral Yi Sun-shin from 2004-05.   The admiral almost single-handedly saved Korea during the Imjin War (1592-1598), but his career path in the corrupt Joseon military was anything but smooth. Early Life Yi Sun Shin was born in Seoul on April 28, 1545. His family was noble, but his grandfather had been purged from the government in the Third Literati Purge of 1519, so the Deoksu Yi clan steered clear of government service. As a child, Yi reportedly played commander in neighborhood war games and made his own functional bows and arrows. He also studied Chinese characters and classics, as was expected of a yangban boy. In his twenties, Yi began to study at a military academy. There he learned archery, horseback riding, and other martial skills. He took the Kwago National Military Exam to become a junior officer at the age of 28, but fell from his horse during the cavalry test and broke his leg. Legend holds that he hobbled to a willow tree, cut some branches, and splinted his own leg so that he could continue the test. In any case, he failed the exam due to this injury. Four years later, in 1576, Yi took the military exam once more and passed.  He became the oldest junior officer in the Joseon military at the age of 32. The new officer was posted to the northern border, where Joseon troops regularly battled Jurchen (Manchu) invaders. Army Career Soon, young officer Yi became known throughout the army for his leadership and his strategic mastery.   He captured the Jurchen chief Mu Pai Nai in battle in 1583, dealing the invaders a crushing blow.  In the corrupt Joseon army, however, Yis early successes led his superior officers to fear for their own positions, so they decided to sabotage his career. Conspirators led by General Yi Il falsely accused Yi Sun Shin of desertion during a battle; he was arrested, stripped of his rank, and tortured. When Yi got out of prison, he immediately re-enlisted in the army as an ordinary foot-soldier.  Once again his strategic brilliance and military expertise soon got him promoted to commander of a military training center in Seoul, and later to military magistrate of a rural county. Yi Sun Shin continued to ruffle feathers, however, refusing to promote the friends and relatives of his superiors if they did not merit a higher position. This uncompromising integrity was very unusual in the Joseon army and made him few friends.   However, his value as an officer and strategist kept him from being purged. Navy Man At the age of 45, Yi Sun Shin was promoted to the rank of Commanding Admiral of the Southwestern Sea, in the Jeolla region, despite the fact that he had no naval training or experience.   It was 1590, and Admiral Yi was acutely aware of the growing threat posed to Korea by Japan. Japans taiko, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was determined to conquer Korea as a stepping stone to Ming China. From there, he even dreamed of expanding the Japanese Empire into India. Admiral Yis new naval command lay in a key position along Japans sea route to Seoul, the Joseon capital. Yi immediately began to build up the Korean navy in the southwest, and ordered the construction of the worlds first iron-clad, the turtle ship.  He stockpiled food and military supplies and instituted a strict new training regimen. Yis command was the only section of the Joseon military actively preparing for war with Japan. Japan Invades In 1592, Hideyoshi ordered his samurai army to attack Korea, beginning with Busan, on the southeast coast. Admiral Yis fleet sailed out to oppose their landing, and despite his complete lack of naval combat experience, he quickly defeated the Japanese at the Battle of Okpo, where he was outnumbered 54 ships to 70; the Battle of Sacheon, which was the debut of the turtle boat and resulted in every Japanese ship in the fight sinking; and several others. Hideyoshi, impatient at this delay, deployed all 1,700 of his available ships to Korea, meaning to crush Yis fleet and take control of the seas. Admiral Yi, however, responded in August 1592 with the Battle of Hansan-do, in which his 56 ships defeated a Japanese detachment of 73, sinking 47 of Hideyoshis ships without losing a single Korean one.  In disgust, Hideyoshi recalled his entire fleet. In 1593, the Joseon king promoted Admiral Yi to the commander of three provinces navies: Jeolla, Gyeongsang, and Chungcheong.  His title was Naval Commander of the Three Provinces. Meanwhile, however, the Japanese plotted to get Yi out of the way so that the Japanese armys supply lines would be secure. They sent a double agent called Yoshira to the Joseon Court, where he told Korean General Kim Gyeong-seo that he wanted to spy on the Japanese. The general accepted his offer, and Yoshira began feeding the Koreans minor intelligence. Finally, he told the general that a Japanese fleet was approaching, and Admiral Yi needed to sail to a certain area to intercept and ambush them. Admiral Yi knew that the supposed ambush was actually a trap for the Korean fleet, laid by the Japanese double agent.  The area for the ambush had rough waters that hid many rocks and shoals. Admiral Yi refused to take the bait.   In 1597, because of his refusal to sail into the trap, Yi was arrested and tortured almost to death.   The king ordered him executed, but some of the admirals supporters managed to get the sentence commuted. General Won Gyun was appointed to head the navy in his place; Yi once more was broken down to the rank of foot-soldier. Meanwhile, Hideyoshi launched his second invasion of Korea early in 1597.  He sent 1,000 ships carrying 140,000 men. This time, however, Ming China sent the Koreans thousands of reinforcements, and they managed to hold off the land-based troops. However, Admiral Yis replacement, Won Gyun, made a series of tactical blunders at sea that left the Japanese fleet in a much stronger position. On August 28, 1597, his Joseon fleet of 150 warships blundered into a Japanese fleet of between 500 and 1,000 ships. Only 13 of the Korean ships survived; Won Gyun was killed. The fleet that Admiral Yi had so carefully built was demolished. When King Seonjo heard about the disastrous Battle of Chilchonryang, he immediately reinstated Admiral Yi but the great admirals fleet had been destroyed. Nonetheless, Yi was defiant of orders to take his sailors ashore.  I still have twelve warships under my command, and I am alive. The enemy shall never be safe in the Western Sea! In October of 1597, he lured a Japanese fleet of 333 into the Myeongnyang Strait, which was narrow and dredged by a powerful current. Yi laid chains across the mouth of the strait, trapping the Japanese ships inside. As the ships sailed through the strait in a heavy fog, many hit rocks and sank. Those that survived were enveloped by Admiral Yis carefully deposed force of 13, which sank 33 of them without using a single Korean ship.   The Japanese commander Kurushima Michifusa was killed in action. Admiral Yis victory at the Battle of Myeongnyang was one of the greatest naval triumphs not just in Korean history, but in all of history. It thoroughly demoralized the Japanese fleet and cut the supply lines to the Japanese army in Korea. The Final Battle In December of 1598, the Japanese decided to break through the Joseon sea blockade and bring the troops home to Japan. On the morning of December 16, a Japanese fleet of 500 met Yis combined Joseon and Ming fleet of 150 at Noryang Strait. Once again, the Koreans prevailed, sinking about 200 of the Japanese ships and capturing an additional 100. However, as the surviving Japanese retreated, a lucky arquebus shot by one of the Japanese troops hit Admiral Yi in the left side. Yi feared that his death could demoralize the Korean and Chinese troops, so he told his son and nephew We are about to win the war.  Do not announce my death! The younger men carried his body below decks to conceal the tragedy and re-entered the fight. This drubbing at the Battle of Noryang was the last straw for the Japanese. They sued for peace and withdrew all troops from Korea. The Joseon kingdom, however, had lost its greatest admiral. In the final tally, Admiral Yi was undefeated in at least 23 naval battles, despite being seriously outnumbered in most of them. Although he had never fought at sea before Hideyoshis invasion, his strategic brilliance saved Korea from being conquered by Japan. Admiral Yi Sun Shin died defending a nation that had betrayed him more than once, and for that, he is still honored today throughout the Korean Peninsula and is even respected in Japan.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

About me Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

About me - Essay Example My family has never faced any financial challenges but my father wanted me to experience every field of work to realize the importance of all kinds of jobs. My first job experience was at Starbucks; I worked there in 2001 and learned that every job needs hard work and commitment to excel. I was often discouraged by my peers and their families about working in a coffee shop; they did not understand the purpose of my work when my father owned companies to his name. My answer to this query was always that my father wants me to learn the real meaning of life and that it is not easy to earn money in life. Then, in the summer of 2002, I worked in a car workshop as a mechanic. I learned many new things about cars during my experience in the workshop. This is when I started loving cars and car racing became one of my hobbies. My love for cars has been analogous to a mother’s love for her babies. That place is special to me also because I bought my first car from there. In the last sum mer before graduation, I worked in a reputable advertising firm; I really enjoyed working there and felt as if this field of work is meant for me. The respective job experience made me realize that I needed to pursue my studies in the field of marketing since it interested me the most. Therefore, I have come to USA to continue my Masters in the field of marketing and to make my parents proud of my accomplishments.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Process of the supreme court Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Process of the supreme court - Essay Example This also gives room for the consideration of various shades of opinions based on individual interpretation of the law. Since verdicts must also adhere to the 200 year old United States constitution, this enhances the dispensation of justice to all citizens. The amendments to the constitution for example, in what is referred to as the second bill of rights have assured all citizens of equal rights, making the document very useful in the operations and decisions of the Supreme Court. All the same there are weaknesses in the Supreme Court process. The workload is immense, considering that each Justice is responsible for verification whether appeals, which come from all over the United States qualify for consideration. Though each Justice is assigned a small staff, they are responsible for each appeal or case. The process is long and complicated and the ramification of this is that it will implicate denying justice to those affected due to the long procedures involved in declaring the verdict. Decisions reached by the Justices are also binding and open to scrutiny and, some people may feel that some decisions made were incorrect since they were made by only a few

Tourism Marketing and tourism and tourism business strategy Essay

Tourism Marketing and tourism and tourism business strategy - Essay Example stination depends largely on the destination marketing organizations and the success of a destination marketing organization mainly depends on different communication channels used by the organization to attract a large number of customers. A multi channel marketing strategy is very important for these destination marketing organizations to reach the potential buyers at different times and in different ways, and that the most successful marketing programs contained an appropriate mix of marketing channels for the targeted audience Multichannel integration is posited as one of the key cross functional processes in CRM strategy development. The nature of industry channel structure, channel participants, channel options, and alternative channel strategies all are very essential and have to be kept in mind. The customer experience is explored both within and across the channels. In less than a decade, customer relationship management (CRM) has escalated into a topic of major importance that is built especially on the principles of relationship marketing CRM is a management approach that seeks to create, develop, and enhance relationships with carefully targeted customers to maximise customer value, corporate profitability,and thus, shareholder value relationships within a multichannel environment . For Destination Marketing Organizations. CRM is important because it provides enhanced opportunities by using data to understand customers and to implement improved relationship marketing strategies. These Destination Marketing Organizations have to attract a number of tourists by promoting an area, city or a country so they need to build strong relations with their potential customers Therefore the multichannel strategy for Destination Marketing Organizations plays a pivotal role in CRM as it takes the outputs of the business strategy and value-creation processes and translates them into value adding interactions with the tourists. It involves making decisions about

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Labor Economics European Union labor migration Essay

Labor Economics European Union labor migration - Essay Example That is, it sets very comprehensive goals for itself, covering economic, political, social and regional and international security policy frameworks, in addition to future plans for the expansion of the Union. As a means of understanding the European Union's path and its goals, a brief overview of the evolution process of the Union will be helpful. This overview will provide the basis for a discursive analysis of the phenomenon of labor migration within the framework of the European Union. Labor migration, as the analysis shall highlight, has proven, despite some benefits, to be highly problematic especially since the Barcelona Declaration expanded the parameters of the stated to include migrant labor from within the larger EU neighborhood. In other words, labor migration within the EU is not confined to labor flows between member countries but has been expanded, and further complicated by the inward flow of labor from without the EU. Most people would date the roots of the European Union to the 1940s, yet W.T.M. Molle, traces the roots of European integrationist dreams much further back. Specifically, during the Napoleonic era, marked by the emergence of a modern economic system, as compared to the feudal one that had come before it, certain economic policies were established in order to ease trade between the nations of the European continent.1 From that moment onwards, one finds several policies that attempt to encourage trade within the continent and overcome specific obstacles to trade. When one looks at this fact, one can conclude that from the earliest history, the European countries were guided by the understanding that regional trade and economic links were important for the economies of the different countries and for the purpose of development. The current structure of the European Union, however, does not have its roots in the policies discussed above; those policies only indicate the historical understanding of the importance of regional economic cooperation. Instead, the roots of the current structure are to be found in three distinct treaties. These, as mentioned by Molle, are the "ECSC, the EEC and the EAECP.2 These three treaties are the foundations of the European Union that has emerged nowadays, despite the fact of their having been limited in terms of countries that had been involved and the treaties themselves. For instance, the ECSC was a steel trading treaty that involved only six European nations. This can not be compared in scope to the current structure of the Union but, the fact of the matter is that the success of the Union and the reason why it has emerged today as a model for deep integration is that it proceeded in a step by step manner, dealing with limited areas of economic cooperation and limited numb ers of countries so that they could stabilize each step and move safely to a new level of expanding integration.3 Even though the European Union sought to stabilize and fortify each step in the unification process before progression to the next step, problems inevitably arose. Among the more challenging of these problems directly pertains to the removal of restrictions on capital flow, included in which is labor. The comparatively unchecked labor movement between the variant member countries, on the one hand, and from the larger neighborhood, on

Persuasive Research Paper on Abortion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Persuasive Research Paper on Abortion - Essay Example e in favor of one direction over the other, are events such as rape, the certain death of the mother or baby if the pregnancy is allowed to continue and cases of incest. The purpose of this paper is to discuss abortion in both a political, moral and feminist light with respect to all of the educated arguments that currently surround the issue. Let us first discuss the most common reasons for one to decide to have an abortion. Abortion is often an alternative to accidental pregnancies or rather, pregnancies which are not planned. Specifically in the case of teen girls who have engaged in unprotected sex. In many cases, these young teens are not only feeling alone and frightened, but are fearful of the response that their parents may have at the news of their daughter’s pregnancy. In many states, a young girl can procure a legal abortion without the consent or knowledge of her parents. While this does well to illuminate children born into situations where they will not be cared for properly, it also creates the appearance that abortion is simply a contraceptive method no different than condoms or birth control pills. This could not be farther from the truth. While it is unclear even to scientists and doctors, when to accurately say that a human fetus is alive, it is a daring assumption to make that a fetus at any poi nt in development is decidedly not a human being yet and therefore not protected from the act of homicide. Certainly, a woman’s body is her own and that fact is undisputable, period. It is important however, to consider that once a woman knowingly engages in the act of intercourse at which time she can feasible become responsible for another living organism growing inside of her which will one day be a human being, that woman becomes representative of two lives and not just one, her own. In this event, the woman should be subject to laws which actively protect both her and the individual growing within her. This is a very clear course of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Business Support System Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business Support System - Research Paper Example Marketers are able to communicate to their target market by use of appropriate, interesting and real ways that customers are elated about and also that entertain them thus persuading them to respond to the offer in the market. This way, promotional programs that are more appealing can be devised that ultimately elicit encouraging returns. This is the reason why marketers would go for augmented reality as it suits and allows smarter interaction with the immediate environment. Augmented reality has come in handy in real estate since by use of technology someone can locate a house for sale by the use of a phone. This is very practical and saves a lot of time since there is no need of searching for that information manually. Augmented reality has even some more applications in the real world. For example technology can be embraced to derive a way through which a customer can be permitted to visualize the contents of a product without having to actually open it. This will therefore motiva te customers who in turn will be tempted to try the product leading to possible impulse buying. Engineers can utilize augmented reality to have a taste of their products operation even before the actual launch something that will give room for more improvement on the product before the buyers use it. Case Study Two The general trend in the market seemed to nose dive leading to uncertainty in almost all other sectors the economy. The prevailing market conditions in 2010 triggered the downward trend of activities in the investment arena (Alison, 2008). The aspect of the debt that European held also had an immense influence on the way investors made their ultimate decision regarding their patterns of investing. The confidence of investors was also ruined by the fact that no one had the surety that Greece could be in a position to settle its debts something that everyone was looking up to. All these uncertainties led to the stagnation of the economy thus leading to the collapse of figur es of many industries that are the economic engines of the country. These events are the precedents of the flash crash that took place shortly after. The benefits of electronic trading are explicit in the market even today. These have far reaching advantages compared to brokers who are basically human. In the electronic trading for example, trading activities are done with accurate speed hence reliability and effectiveness is guaranteed. Moreover, brokers and other concerned agents tend to charge exorbitant fees to deliver on some activities something that may cripple the entire process. Therefore the electronic trading system comes in handy due to its reduced costs involved that help increase on the returns. The other hand efficiency is guaranteed by this system since buyers and sellers can be satisfactorily matched. There are some factors related to the electronic trading programs that contributed to the crash. This is a very unfortunate occurrence since a lot of utility was expec ted to be derived from these systems. There was a total imbalance and distortion of prices as their execution would be done with no regard to any price or time thus as selling continued prices dropped sharply. The effect of this is that what is there on offer to the market has to be sold aggressively to counteract bad prices that could bring huge losses. All these complicated processes frighten

Persuasive Research Paper on Abortion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Persuasive Research Paper on Abortion - Essay Example e in favor of one direction over the other, are events such as rape, the certain death of the mother or baby if the pregnancy is allowed to continue and cases of incest. The purpose of this paper is to discuss abortion in both a political, moral and feminist light with respect to all of the educated arguments that currently surround the issue. Let us first discuss the most common reasons for one to decide to have an abortion. Abortion is often an alternative to accidental pregnancies or rather, pregnancies which are not planned. Specifically in the case of teen girls who have engaged in unprotected sex. In many cases, these young teens are not only feeling alone and frightened, but are fearful of the response that their parents may have at the news of their daughter’s pregnancy. In many states, a young girl can procure a legal abortion without the consent or knowledge of her parents. While this does well to illuminate children born into situations where they will not be cared for properly, it also creates the appearance that abortion is simply a contraceptive method no different than condoms or birth control pills. This could not be farther from the truth. While it is unclear even to scientists and doctors, when to accurately say that a human fetus is alive, it is a daring assumption to make that a fetus at any poi nt in development is decidedly not a human being yet and therefore not protected from the act of homicide. Certainly, a woman’s body is her own and that fact is undisputable, period. It is important however, to consider that once a woman knowingly engages in the act of intercourse at which time she can feasible become responsible for another living organism growing inside of her which will one day be a human being, that woman becomes representative of two lives and not just one, her own. In this event, the woman should be subject to laws which actively protect both her and the individual growing within her. This is a very clear course of

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Comparing and Contrasting Tragic Heroes †Oedipus and Prufrock Essay Example for Free

Comparing and Contrasting Tragic Heroes – Oedipus and Prufrock Essay Introduction: Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 –1940) the Irish American novelist and short story writer of the twentieth century said â€Å"Show me a hero and I will write you a tragedy†(as quoted in Indeed more often than not, great tragedies of yore were always centered round the deeds or the misdeeds of a hero (usually a man of noble birth) his misfortunes and the cursed nature of his life, fated to suffer and fall from glory. The concepts of heroes and heroism have themselves undergone vast changes from Sophocles’ (496-406 B. C) times. Consequently, the idea of hero-based tragedy indeed, even the basic traits of heroism has undergone transformation. As against the noble-born, valorous hero of Sophocles and Aristotle (in The Poetics of 30 B. C.), the common man who struggles to make a decent living, and fulfill ordinary aspirations such as wanting to be loved, given affection, loyalty, friendship etc, in a mundane, mechanized, and mad-after-money world (bereft of human values) his life has become the focus of the twentieth century tragedies. This essay, shall take two characters, Oedipus – the King (425 B.C), in the ancient drama of Sophocles, and J. Alfred Prufrock, in the twentieth century poet T.S. Eliot’s (1888 –1965) â€Å"Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock† (1915), and analyze their similarities and dissimilarities, with a brief definition of Tragic Hero as given by Sophocles, and the definition of a Tragic Hero in modern times. Definitions with illustrations of Tragic Heroes – Ancient and Twentieth Century: First, the idea of a tragic hero, in the ancient times shall be discussed.   Aristotle, who was a great Greek philosopher and thinker, stipulated a couple of traits as absolutely necessary for a tragic hero: he must be noble origin, or at least possess a noble spirit, and he must be the cause of his own suffering. Aristotle (384-322 B.C), quoting the character of Oedipus depicted by Sophocles, laid down certain rules that a tragic hero must possess: a leader who is filled with good and bad elements Oedipus was of noble birth and had many noble characters like wanting redeem his kingdom from the plague, but he also was too proud etc; he is ignorant of his imminent fall, though the audience have prior knowledge of it in case of Oedipus the audience had prior knowledge of his birth and identity, while he considers himself the son of Polybus, the king of Corinth; his inherent flaw or â€Å"hamart ia† is the cause of his fall – his belief that he can over come the prophecy that he will kill his father; suffers isolation because of this self-exile from Corinth; suffering is irreversible – the blinding he causes to himself later; undergoes punishment because of his own pride or â€Å"hubris† – Oedipus pursues the killer of King Laius, despite counsel against it; a misguided sense of heroism, wherein he is prepared to take on the guilt of the state or kingdom on himself – his belief that he can somehow overcome the prophecy of the oracle by leaving his parents; resulting in greater conflict with fate – Oedipus finally goes to Thebes and killed his own father, without knowing who the latter was, thereby fulfilling the oracle; a restoration of balance to the original state of social harmony through cleansing of pity and fear – Oedipus undertakes to go away in exile which was the punishment he had ordered for the killer of the previous king handing over the kingdom to Creon; which he called catharsis or tragic satisfaction (adapted from Allingham, 2002:1). Thus Oedipus exactly fits the role with of a tra gic hero, as laid down by Aristotle. Coming to modern tragic hero of the twentieth century, as mentioned earlier, has come a long way from the stipulations of the ancients for tragic-heroism.   Daniel J. Boorstin (1914 –2004), an American writer, and the Librarian of Congress, talks of the heroes of the modern world as being â€Å"anonymous† and â€Å"the unsung hero: †¦ the honest cop, the hard worker at lonely, underpaid, unglamorous, unpublicized jobs† (as in A modern tragic hero may described as someone who does not hold any of the ancient lofty ideals, rather as an ordinary man who is disillusioned with the ruthless world around him and is not able to come to terms with it and suffers thereby with a feeling of helplessness, and is unable to realize his full potential because of this. Typically, he is subjected to moods, driven by extreme happiness or plunged into extreme sorrow, very sophisticated, filled with doubts, lives in the crowded cities yet suffers desperately from isolation, smart yet sensitive, and often disillusioned to such an extent that he feels life itself has lost all meaning or relevance to him. Eliot’s Prufrock, typically suffers all these qualities. For example, he is always filled with self-doubt, â€Å"a deep phobia of life, turning into what one could perhaps best describe as complete biological defeatism† (Mirsky, undated). He seems to be the very best representation of so many negative attributes, like procrastination, indecision, doubts, frustration that reflects the impotent helplessness of the modern, urban man. The first few lines in the poem are from Dante’s Inferno, which is used as a prelude, to show that Prufrock, the protagonist is already doomed and is voicing out his thoughts because he is so sure that no-one is hearing them. The poem describes the innermost feelings, extremely tortured with a wanting, to disclose his love to his chosen woman, but prevented from self-doubt, and fear, phobia, â€Å"Do I dare / Disturb the universe?† (Eliot, lines 44-45), because he only knew too well the out come of such expression â€Å"That is not what I meant at all† (Eliot, line 97). The vivid description of the places, possibly his dwelling place, reflects the sordid state in which the typical twentieth century man lived, and the isolation he felt â€Å"of lonely men in shirt-sleeves† (Eliot, line 73). Eliot’s Prufrock, ultimately fails even to begin his proposal to his lady love, because he could not muster the courage to do it, with a premonition of failure overcoming him and, grows old, suffering life-long loneliness. In a sense this defeatism, is his flaw that proves to be the cause of his woes. He claims that he is not â€Å"Prince Hamlet† (Eliot, line 111), referring to the Shakespearean tragic hero, implying his lack of royal lineage, but the irony is that he is, in fact exactly like Hamlet, who by postponing his decision avenge his father’s death, by killing kill Claudius, leads to the death of many others, and finally his own. All this prove that, he does conform to the image of a twentieth century tragic-hero. Comparing and Contrasting, the two tragic heroes: One similarity between the two characters that strikes a literature student immediately is that, both Oedipus and Prufrock, actually are depicted as surviving long into old age, despite all their sadness and failures and disillusionment. Almost as if to chew cud, ruminate all that had gone by and to die a slow painful death of their miserable actions; misguided in Oedipus’ case, â€Å"Woe, woe, and woe again! / How through my soul there darts the sting of pain, / The memory of my crimes† (Sophocles, lines 1372-74) and inactions in the case of Prufrock, â€Å"I grow old† (Eliot, line 120). Both, ultimately realize their folly, or flaw, but are helpless to reverse the situation. In Prufrock’s case, he is entirely the cause of his own suffering, but still is impotent to change the situation. Both despise themselves for their helplessness. Thus, their sufferings seem amplified and add to the brooding quality of their tragic lives. Both are isolated and are despised by the world, in their thinking. Prufrock states that he doesn’t think that the mermaids will sing to him; Oedipus begs to be led away hurriedly, being the most polluted of all, and â€Å"Of all men most accursed† (Sophocles, line1396). Though the two characters share the above stated common traits and both are tragic heroes, there are quite a few dissimilarities too. The first difference is the form of portrayal of the tragic heroes. Oedipus is the hero of the dramatic form, and hence his character is more clear and open to study, presenting a fuller picture of all his characteristic traits and complex behavior. Prufrock, on the other hand is neither a king, nor of noble thinking, and he is the tragic hero in a poem. Implicitly, the shortage of space in a poem puts limitations on extensive character portrayal of the hero. Thus, the student is able to study only a portion of the character’s life-span of Prufrock, in contrast to the full life history of Oedipus. The other most striking contrast is that Oedipus is an ancient tragic hero – actively upholding the principles of high idealism, altruism, justice, and valor while being beleaguered by feelings of jealousy, treachery, disloyalty, dishonor, greed, lust for power etc, the modern,   tragic-hero is more of an anti-hero, and impotent. In the sense, he is so defeated by the power of the dull, uninspiring world around him, that he prefers to rather remain inactive, than to actively try to change his situation and be defeated. It is almost as if the uselessness of the attempts of the ancient tragic heroes have been embedded in the collective psyche of the modern tragic hero, and hence, he is already aware of the outcome, he doesn’t even want to attempt. Oedipus not being aware of his true identity, led him to wrongly believe that Polybus was his father, and thereafter his vow never to return to Corinth. But still he, as the mark of a true hero took an action of self-exile which ultimately led to fructify the designs of fate. Nevertheless, he was action-oriented and defeated. Whereas, the modern tragic hero in Prufrock, is so much a pessimist, that he remains defeated with inaction – by sheer preference. In fact, it is said that T.S. Eliot was reflecting on the dismal conditions of the world surrounding him, and this poem partially paved the way for his other later works like The Wasteland (1922). The differing time-periods of the two characters have resulted in the portrayal of the different societies in which these two heroes lived. For example, the people of the land of Thebes have been represented as the Chorus, and they are actively involved in the happenings of the state, the king and the welfare of the state, showing a healthy environment; whereas, the desolate depiction of the twentieth century environment, in Eliot’s poem is more dismal, and uninspiring. It seems the society as a common force had died out, or at least not visible. Conclusion: The tragic heroes Oedipus and Prufrock belong to totally different ages; consequently, present entirely different set of traits and ideals by which they are depicted. While both the heroes have some aspects common to all tragedies, they also display very contrasting traits which make their study, all the more interesting.   However, both are symbols of negative impact that afflict the state, ancient and the twentieth century.                  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   List of readings and works cited The sources on which this essay is based on are: Eliot, T.S.  (1888–1965).†The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock† in Prufrock and Other Observations.  Ã‚  1917. On line edition Published May 1996 by   Web address Accessed on June 12, 2006. Sophocles. Oedipus the King, translated by E. H. Plumptre. Vol. VIII, Part 5. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier Son, 1909–14;, 2001.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Website address and Accessed on June 12, 2006. Other works cited and readings that have helped in gaining a better understanding towards writing this essay are: Allingham, V, Philip. 2002. â€Å"Aristotelian Tragedy and the Novels of Thomas Hardy† in The Victorian Web. Website: Accessed on June 12, 2006. McCoy, Kathleen., Harlan, Judith. (1992). ENGLISH LITERATURE FROM 1785 (New   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   York: HarperCollins, 1992: 265-66) Web site address:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Accessed on June 12, 2006. (2005).   â€Å"Memorable Quotations: Heroes† website address Accessed on June 12, 2006. Mirsky, D.S. Undated.   Ã¢â‚¬Å"T. S. Eliot and The End of Bourgeois Poetry† trans. by Gunnar Jauch, Annelie Hultà ©n, and Arwin van Arum. Website address Accessed on June 12, 2006.

Monday, October 14, 2019

State And Evaluate Aristotles Function Philosophy Essay

State And Evaluate Aristotles Function Philosophy Essay In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle claims that to discover the human good we must identify the function of a human being. I will first explain this idea of Aristotles known as the function argument. He argues that the human function is rational activity. Our good is therefore rational activity performed well, which Aristotle takes to mean in accordance with virtue. I will then evaluate how Aristotles function argument has a great degree of relevance to Platos perception of happiness in the Republic. After Socrates tries to establish that the just life is the happiest and best, Plato Aristotles function argument is defined in book one of his book Nimoachean Ethics. The purpose of the book is to discover the human good, identified as happiness, at which we ought to aim in life. Aristotle tells us that everyone refers to this eudaimonia (happiness), but that people disagree about what it consists in (1.4 1095b). In 1.6, Aristotle suggests that we might arrive at a clearer conception of happiness if we first determine the ergon (function) of a human being (1.7 1097b). The explanation for this line of inquiry is that for all things that have a function or activity, the good and the well is thought to reside in the function (1.6 1097b). He presents the example of a flute player in the book to explain what he means by the function resides within the object conducting the activity. In order for one to be a flute player, one must know how to play the flute. Similarly, for one to be happy, happiness must exist within oneself. He also acknowledges that the human is a varia tion of the function, because the function of any task is absolute and perfect within itself. This concept can be further clarified using the example of the flute, there is an absolute and perfect way to play the flute, one of which we are incapable, therefore we play a slightly altered way, but it is still similar enough to its function form that we still consider the activity as playing the flute. The argument that follows establishes that human function is an active life of the element that has a rational principle (1.7 1098a). By this Aristotle means every action has a purpose for the sake of which others are done (1.7 1098a). The flute is played to create music, medicine is practiced to cure, and like this, every task has its purpose. Therefore, happiness is the activity of the rational part of the soul and in accordance with virtue (1.7 1098a). Any function that has a rational principle must therefore be a rational part of the soul, and because we live life seeking to find hap piness, happiness is a rational part of the soul making it a virtue. Aristotle defines virtue as a balance point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean which is sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. For example, courage is the mean between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence the mean between self-deprecation and vanity, and generosity the mean between miserliness and extravagance. Finding the golden mean requires common-sense, not necessarily high intelligence. Aristotle views virtue as an excellence at being human, a skill that helps a person survive, thrive, form meaningful relationships, and find happiness (CITATION). He also states that virtues are initially difficult, but become easier with practice and eventually become habit. Aristotles function argument, is a descendant of one offered by Plato at the end of the  ¬Ã‚ rst book of the Republic (Republic 352d-354b). Socrates tries establish that the just life is happiest and best, and he argues as follows. First of all, each thing has a function, which is what one can do only or best with that thing (R 352e). Furthermore, everything that has a function has a virtue, which enables it to perform its function well (R 352b-c). The function of the soul is taking care of things, ruling, deliberating, and the like, since these are activities you could not perform with anything except your soul. A few lines later Socrates also proposes that living is a function of the soul (R 353d). Since the soul only performs its function well if it has the virtue associated with its function, a good soul rules, takes care of things, and in general lives well, while a bad soul does all this badly (R 353e). Since earlier arguments have supposedly established that justice is the virtue of the soul, Plato concludes that the just soul lives well, and therefore is blessed and happy, while an unjust one lives badly and so is wretched. Both versions of the argument seem to depend on a connection between being a good person and having a good or happy life, and their aim is to connect both of these in turn to rationality. Aristotles version of the argument in particular has provoked a great deal of criticism, some of which I describe in the next section. In this essay, I offer an account of what Aristotle means by function and what the human function is, drawing on Aristotles metaphysical and psychological writings. I then reconstruct Aristotles argument in terms of the results. My purpose is to defend the function argument, and to show that when it is properly understood, it is possible to answer many of the objections that have been raised to it. For reasons I will explain below, I think it is essential to make good sense of the function argument, because the theoretical structure of the Nicomachean Ethics collapses without it. Part of the defense is conditional, and shows only that if one held Aristotles metaphysical beliefs, the function argument would seem as natural and obvious as it clearly seemed to him. But part of it is intended to be unconditional, and to show that, gien certain assumptions about reason and virtue, which, if not obvious, are certainly not crazy, the function argument is a good way to approach the question how to live well. The major differences that can be seen between these two arguments are seen when we examine the goals of both Plato and Aristotle. Plato has two main goals behind his argument, the first is to refute the position that injustice is better than justice. Secondly, his human function argument helps to set up the idea of his model cities, in which each person has a function and the city is virtuous when everyone performs their own function. Aristotle is examining happiness as the ultimate end and is searching for ways to get to that end. Thus, by proving that this good is found in the expression of reason, Aristotle is able to prescribe a path to happiness. If one fulfills ones function, expression of reason, and does so in an excellent manner, one will necessarily attain happiness. Another way in which the two arguments differ is on their actual conceptualization of what the human function is. For Plato, the human function is defined as deliberation, ruling, living and taking care of things. This differs greatly from Aristotle idea of the human function which is, to perform activities that express reason. Not only are these two definitions very different, but they illustrate the chasm between the ways that each philosopher is thinking of the concept of a human function. Plato thinks of it in terms of the persons place in society. His ideas of ruling, deliberatingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc pertain to the community in which one lives, and ones relation to it. Aristotle approaches the problem from a much more individualistic point of view. Expressing reason in ones action does not have anything to do with a relationship with other people or a community, but relates only to the individual. In conclusion, the biggest difference between Platos argument and Aristotles is their conceptualization of the concept of the human function. Also, their goals are vastly different. Plato uses his argument to refute those who would argue that injustice is beneficial and to set up his model city, in which virtue for the city is derived from each person fulfilling their function. Aristotle, on the other hand, uses his argument to directly set up a method for achieving the ultimate good.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Revenge in Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter Essays -- Scarlet Letter es

The Scarlet Letter:   Revenge    Revenge is the act of retaliating in order to get even with someone for the wrongs they have done. In the novel â€Å"The Scarlet Letter,† the author, Nathaniel Hawthorne, uses Roger Chillingworth to reap revenge on Arthur Dimmesdale for his affair with his wife, Hester Prynne. Chillingworth becomes so devoted to revenge that is all his life revolves around. Chillingworth then devotes the rest of his life to taking revenge on Dimmesdale. As the novel progressed, Chillingworth fits the profile of ‘vengeance destroys the avenger’. When Roger Chillingworth is first introduced to the reader, we see a kind old man, who just has planted the seeds for revenge. Although he did speak of getting his revenge, when Hester first met her husband in her jail cell, she did not see any evil in him. Because Hester would not tell him who she had slept with, Chillingworth vowed that he would spend the rest of his life having his revenge and that he would eventually suck the soul out of the man, whom she had the affair with. â€Å"There is a sympathy that will make me conscious of him. I shall see him tremble. I shall feel myself shudder, suddenly and unawares† (Hawthorne, 101) As the novel develops, Roger Chillingworth has centered himself on Arthur Dimmesdale, but he cannot prove that he is the â€Å"one.† Chillingworth has become friends with Dimmesdale, because he has a â€Å"strange disease,† that n eeded to be cured; Chillingworth suspects something and begins to drill Dimmesdale. â€Å"†¦ The disorder is a strange one†¦hath all the operation of this disorder been fairly laid open to me and recounted to me† (Hawthorne, 156). As Chillingworth continues to drill Dimmesdale, he strikes a nerve. â€Å"You deal not, I take it, i... ...Now go thy ways, and deal as thou wilt with yonder man† (Hawthorne, 192). Chillingworth’s plan for revenge is based on Dimmesdale not confessing to his crime. When Dimmesdale confessed to the crowd on Election Day, Chillingworth pleaded with him not to tell. â€Å"Old Roger Chillingworth knelt down beside him, with a blank, dull countenance, out of which life seemed to have departed. Thou hast escaped me†¦thou hast escaped me! He repeated more than once.† (Hawthorne, 268). Once Dimmesdale had confessed and died, Chillingworth had nothing to live for. â€Å"At old Roger Chillingworth’s decease (which took place within the year).† (Hawthorne, 272). Revenge destroys the avenger, fits the life of Roger Chillingworth. He devoted his entire life to revenge, and what happiness did he have to show for it? Had Chillingworth not been so jealous, he might have had a better life to live.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Comparing Women in Rappaccinis Daughter, Prophetic Pictures, Lady Elea

The Role of Women in Rappaccini's Daughter, The Prophetic Pictures, Lady Eleanor's Mantle, and The Birth-Mark When researching criticism on Hawthorne's works, I ran across an interesting piece that dealt with the feminist view of "The Birth-Mark."   The article, written by Fetterly, explores the relationship between Aylmer and his wife, and how this relationship is a typical male-dominated situation.   Although there is the fact that the story deals with the failure of the scientist, there is an underlying current here of how Aylmer views his wife: in a negative manner.   This view towards women can be seen in several of the works of Hawthorne's - among them "Rappaccini's Daughter," "The Prophetic Pictures," and   "Lady Eleanor's Mantle."   While this view of women is not always at the forefront of the piece, it is certainly worth exploring how they are treated by the men in each.   In "The Birthmark," Aylmer sets about the task of ridding his wife of the one imperfection she has.   By attempting to perfect her, the readers get the idea that somehow Georgiana is not adequate and this inadequacy lies in her appearance.   The message to the readers seems to be that women need to be perfect on the outside as well as on the inside, which Aylmer claims is flawless.   Aylmer decides he is going to "fix" Georgiana.   Feminists look at this as a male control issue.  Ã‚   There are several mentions of Georgiana as being "otherwise so perfect," in both appearance and soul - save for this birthmark.   This idea of having to have the most beautiful wife is very degrading view of women.   It plants the idea in our minds that men are superior to women, and that men are the ones who can "fix" females in the attempt to bring them up to the level of me... ...hadow of death falling over the female characters in each of these stories.   This would fit into what Fetterly describes as "the great American dream of eliminating women."   It seems that the role of the men in these pieces were chiefly to try and control their wives/love interests/daughters in the attempt to get an upper hand in the battle of the sexes.   There are not any productive male-female relationships seen here, and feminists would conclude that this stems from the need to dominate women, probably because men are afraid of the power of women.   We can't know what's going on in the minds of these men, but it certainly is interesting to look at the relationships they have with the main female characters. Works Cited: Hawthorne, Nathaniel. " Rappaccini's Daughter." Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tales. Ed. James McIntosh. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1987.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Speech introducing the poetry of Elizabeth Bishop

My fellow students and writers, welcome. The honour of speaking to you, the poets of the future, has been bestowed upon me and I hope I will not disappoint. As Stephen Spender once said ‘I fear I cannot make an amusing speech as I read that all geniuses are devoid of humour'. Today I will be speaking about one of the greatest female poets of the twentieth century, and one of my own personal favourites, Elizabeth Bishop. ‘There's nothing more embarrassing than being a poet really'. The words of this modest poet convey the shy hidden qualities of a woman who was spectacular in being unspectacular. Bishop was never preoccupied with the obsolescent idea of being a poet. This gave her a sincerity that transposed to her poetry in expressing the emotional journey that was her life. Her poetry echoes a life well lived with extremes of emotion from the joy of heightened awareness, to abject isolation and depression. Elizabeth Bishop was born in America in 1911. Her father died shortly after her birth and at the age of five Bishop lost her mother to mental illness. These harsh lessons of life, so early learned, left a void in Bishop's life, the void of a settled loving family. Her poem ‘Filling Station' explores the themes of love and family which depicts her longing to be loved and to belong. The poem describes a family living amongst the oil and dirt of a filling station. At first she dismisses the filthy place ‘Oh but it is dirty! ‘ But as in much of her poetry Bishop looks beyond the obvious to find a beauty and homeliness within all the dirt. In this poem she comes to the conclusion that ‘Somebody loves us all'. This short sentence has gained the power of a proverb for me in my life and I'm sure it will hold resonance with many of you too. This comforting thought, wise and true, shows how Bishop reveals the truth through her close observation of the little things in her quest for self-discovery. Bishop's original way of viewing situations is also clear in her poem ‘The Prodigal'. Have you ever wondered what happened to the prodigal son during his transgression from home? Well Bishop did in this clever poem which focuses on the lowest part of the prodical son's life. This effectively simple poem describes mankind's need for companionship, she herself being a self-proclaimed outsider. As an outsider Bishop led a very unsettled restless life described as desperately and energetically nomadic. She once said ‘All my life I have lived and behaved very much like the sandpiper – just running down the edges of different countries and continents'. Here Bishop confesses of a great desire to travel, discernibly in search of the home she never had. Bishop wrote the poem ‘Questions of Travel' which depicts the time she spent in Brazil. Although it was a place of immense beauty, she often felt separate and outside of it. She asks ‘Should we have stayed at home wherever that may be? ‘ which shows Bishop's great loneliness in searching for belonging. In this poem she also questions the human need to travel to strange foreign places. It foregrounds the issue of whether the tourist's quest stems from an innocent desire to savour landscapes of difference or whether it might have a darker motive, resembling the imperialistic desire to conquer and acquire other lands. She then asks if it is childishness that causes us ‘to rush to see the sun the other way around'. More humorously this poem signifies the limitations of human knowledge and understanding of foreign cultures. After all are we not all guilty of inwardly complaining of the intrusive tourists that plague our country annually? Bishop asks ‘Is it right to be watching strangers in a play in this strangest of theatres? ‘ However Bishop's argument promoting the merits of travel will banish the negative thoughts of even the most xenophobic among us. I feel many will enjoy the theatrical differences conveyed in this poem as Bishop is so wry and honest about the differences between locals and tourists. A striking photographic quality of images is atypical of Bishop's poetry. Her poem ‘The Fish' uses language that is imagistic and precise in describing the confrontation between an amateur fisher and a ‘tremendous' battle-worn fish. The poem is rich in imagery, simile and metaphor and uses layering of images which describes in intricate detail the newly caught fish. Bishop is an empathetic imaginative observer as she describes the fish inside and out down to ‘The dramatic reds and blacks of his shiny entrails, and the pink swim bladder like a big peony'. The final line ‘until everything was rainbow, rainbow, rainbow! And I let the fish go' describes a moment of epiphany and revelation common to Bishop's poetry. Bishop pronounces a merciful verdict on the life of the venerable old fish which contrasts strongly with man's attempt to conquer nature. This moral poem is one to think about the next time you go fishing. My favourite poem by Elizabeth Bishop is ‘First Death in Nova Scotia'. The full complexity of childhood is effectively evoked in this simple poem about the death of her cousin. This is a poem we can all relate to as it captures a child's first experience of death. Although written in her fifties, Bishop manages to capture the confusion she felt as she attempted to understand the finality of death. This poem has quite a chilling quality which echoes the wrong sequence death has taken in extinguishing the life of a child. The final stanza, although chilling, is one of my favourite pieces of poetry. The vulnerability and fear created as the child doubts the presence of an afterlife is true of my experience of death and I'm sure other's. The child Bishop asks ‘But how could Arthur go; clutching his tiny lily with his eyes shut up so tight and the roads deep in snow? ‘ This final line filled with poignancy is a perfect example of Bishop's simple but effective style. Oscar Wilde is quoted as saying ‘One should rejoice in the beauty, the joy and the wonder of life; the less said about life's sores the better'. However, Bishop manages to do both successfully in her striking and distinctive poetry that will give much pleasure for years to come. Her poetry covers topics from death to family and from travel to morality. Her keen eye for detail, her accurate observations and her simple, concise description of the world around us makes Elizabeth Bishop's poetry an animated read. Her poetry boasts genuine feeling which originates from her own harsh experiences in life and often expresses a greater understanding of life and death. Her pleasing style makes her poetry a firm favourite among many amateur writers and poetry lovers. I hope I have instilled in you today the joys of reading the poetry of one of the most influential females of the last century. I will now leave you with a final quote from Elizabeth Bishop's poem called ‘Poem'. This poem maps the reader's experience of reading poetry, from indifference to recognition of a common humanity. ‘Life and the memory of it cramped, dim, on a piece of Bristol board, dim, but how alive, how touching in detail–the little that we get for free, the little of our earthly trust'