Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Led freer trade environment Essays

Led freer trade environment Essays Led freer trade environment Essay Led freer trade environment Essay Abstraction: In the new WTO led freer trade environment, Indian nutrient industry can vie Globally merely if it is monetary value and quality competitory.Due to the liberalisation of Indian economic system and the oncoming of WTO government, quality Competitiveness will count most in Indian nutrient industry. Hence serious consideration had given to quality issues in Indian nutrient industries. The Indian authorities is actuating the dairy and other nutrient processing industries for acceptance of nutrient safety and quality confidence mechanisms such as Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) including ISO 9000, ISO 14000. Hazard analysis and critical control points ( HACCP ) . Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) , Good Hygienic Practices ( GMP ) .And this essay besides contains Indian Government Regulation s in the Dairy Processing Sector. Introduction: Harmonizing to the National Dairy Development Board, India the one-year production of milk during the twelvemonth 2007-2008 is 104.8 million metric tons. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //nddb.org/statistics/milkproduction.html ) India has two types of sectors for the selling of milk and its merchandises, one is organized sector and another is unorganised sector. The unorganised sector histories for 88 % of entire milk production in India and it includes selling of natural milk and traditional merchandises such as locally manufactured ghee, fresh cheese, and Sweets. The organized sector histories for 10-12 % of entire milk production in India and it includes the dairy co-ops and organized private dairies which produces Western-style dairy processed merchandises based on pasteurisation. The portion of organized sector in the entire milk production handling is increasing by the old ages ( FAO, 2002 ) . India has now become the largest manufacturer of milk in the universe, with estimated production of about 81 million dozenss in 2001 ( FAO, 2002 ) .Milk production in India histories for more than 13 % of the entire universe end product and 57 % of entire Asia s production. Top five milk bring forthing states in the universe are India, USA, Russia, Germany and France ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aavinmilk.com/dairyprofile.html ) . Quality and Safety Management in Indian Dairy Industry: After the formation of World Trade Organization ( WTO ) , there were some cases where foreign purchasers refused to accept Indian processed nutrient merchandises from Indian nutrient processing industries which did non follow HACCP system.Due to this Industries which are exporting were paying lare sums of money to foreign advisers for HACCP Implementation ( CM, 1997 ) .And besides implementing HACCP system has become compulsory for nutrient companies after the formation of World Trade Organization ( WTO ) and this is due to HACCP is recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission ( CAC ) and the CAC recommendation has been approved by the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ( SPS ) reached under the marks of WTO ( Satish Y. Deodhar, 2001 ) . Codex Alimentarius Commission It is an international Body which was established by Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) and World Health Organization ( WHO ) of the United Nations with an aim to protect the wellness of consumers and to guarantee just patterns in the nutrient trade. It gives specifications for International Standards for the safety and quality of nutrient codifications of good fabrication pattern. The Standards, guide lines and recommendations specified by Codex Alimentarius committee was recognized worldwide for international trade and dialogues and besides for settling of differences by WTO. ( Beginning: GOVERNMENT OF INDIA OUTCOME BUDGET OF MINISTRY OF FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES FOR 2008-2009 ) Government of India ( GOI ) Ministry of nutrient processing industries Financial Scheme for Quality Assurance, Codex Standard 2008-2009. Aims of this Scheme: Motivating the nutrient processing industries in order to follow nutrient quality and safety confidence systems such as Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) which includes ISO 9000, ISO 14000 and safety confidence systems such as Hazard analysis and critical control points ( HACCP ) , Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) and Good Hygienic Practices ( GMP ) . To do the nutrient processing industries ready to confront them to planetary competition in international trade after the WTO formation. To fix the nutrient processing industries in such a manner that itv will lodge to rigorous quality in hygiene norms. Enhaning the merchandise produced by nutrient processing industries which will accept by abroad purchasers. To fix Indian nutrient processing industry in technologically up to day of the month which will pattern international best patterns. The Scheme included the undermentioned activities: Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) . Promoting of Quality Assurance / Safety Concept. Bar Coding. Strengthening of Codex Cell. Upgrading Quality Control Laboratories. Research A ; Development Programmes for nutrient processing industry 1. Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) Ministry of Food Processing Industries ( GOI ) is running a Plan Scheme which is advancing nutrient processing industries to follow nutrient quality and safety confidence systems such as ISO 9000, ISO 14000, Hazard Analysis and Critical points ( HACCP ) , Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) , Good Hygienic Practices ( GHP ) .And it has assisted 10 nutrient treating units to implement the HACCP, IS09000, GMP, GHP patterns during the twelvemonth 2007-2008. 2. Puting Up/Up step of Quality Control Laboratory Strengthening or Puting up or Networking of research labs will assist in debut of quality and safety systems in nutrient processing industries and keeping quality of the merchandise at every degree of production. Ministry of Food Processing industries ( GOI ) has started a program strategy for puting up/ up step of quality control research lab with aims like guaranting acceptance of National nutrient criterions, helping nutrient industries to develop and implement quality direction systems such as ISO9000, HACCP etc. , analysing the samples received from nutrient processing industries, and other interest holder and preparation in the countries associating to quality betterment through ain expertness. The Ministry of nutrient processing industries ( GOI ) has approved fiscal aid to the some organisations during the twelvemonth 2007-2008 for puting up and up step of nutrient proving research labs like Maarc Lab private limited, Pune. , Council for Food Research and Development, Government of Kerala. , Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. , Pradeshik Cooperative Dairy Fed. Ltd, Lucknow. , . AcharyaN.G. Agricultural University, Hyderabad and A.P. State Agro Industries Dev.Corpn.Ltd. Hyderabad. ( Beginning: GOVERNMENT OF INDIA OUTCOME BUDGET OF MINISTRY OF FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES FOR 2008-2009 ) Indian Government Regulation s in the Dairy Processing Sector: Compulsory statute law 1. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 The Act was created in Indian Parliament in 1954 in order to forestall debasement of nutrient and it Rules were formed in the twelvemonth 1955.The PFA Act includes nutrient criterions, general processs for trying, analysis of nutrient, powers of authorised officers, nature of punishments and other parametric quantities related to nutrient. It will give criterions to nutrient additives, preservative, colourising affairs, packing A ; labeling of nutrients, prohibition A ; ordinances of gross revenues etc. Amendments are incorporated in PFA regulations with the recommendation made by the Central Committee of Food Standards ( CCFS ) which has been setup by Cardinal Government of India under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare consisting members from different parts of the state. The commissariats of PFA Act and Rules are implemented by State Government and local organic structures as provided in the regulations. The commissariats of the Act are compulsory and dispute of the regul ations can take to both mulcts and imprisonment. ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fssai.gov.in/PFA.aspx ) 2. Milk and Milk Product Order ( MMPO ) The Govt. of India had announced officially the Milk and Milk Product Order ( MMPO ) 1992 on 9.06.1992 under the commissariats of Essential trade good Act, 1955.According to this order any individual or dairy plat managing more than 10000 litres per twenty-four hours of milk or 500 Million dozenss of milk solids per annum demands to be registered with the registering authorization appointed by the Cardinal Government of India. This order aims at to keep and increase in supply of liquid milk of coveted quality in the involvements of the general populace and besides helps in for modulating the production, processing and distribution of milk and milk Products. So far suited amendments were made by Government of India for this order from clip to clip in order to do it more broad and oriented to ease the dairy enterpriser. The latest amendment was made on 26/03/2002. At present there is no limitation on puting up of new milk works but demand of enrollment is for implementing the prescribe d criterions of quality and nutrient safety. The outstanding characteristics of the new amendments include healthful, hygienic status, quality, nutrient safety issues and flexible review of dairy works. ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //dahd.nic.in/milkorder.htm ) 3. Standards on Weights and Measures ( Packaged Commodities ) Rules, 1997 These Rules species obligatory conditions should be maintained for all milk and milk merchandises which are in jammed signifier with regard to declarations on measures contained. And they are operated by the Directorate of Weights and Measures, under the Ministry of Food and Civil Supplies ( Government of India ) . 4. Export ( Quality Control and Inspection ) Act, 1963 This act was operated by Export Inspection Council ( Government of India ) . Harmonizing to this Act all exportable milk and milk merchandises should undergo mandatory pre-shipment review for quality control. And the quality control and review are administered through a web of more than 50 offices located around major production centres and ports of cargo 5. Pollution Control The milk processing industry should take no Objection Certificate from Pollution Control Board which is Compulsory. Voluntary Standards In India there are two organisations which deal with voluntary standardisation and enfranchisement systems in the nutrient sector. They are: 1. Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) BIS has two types of activities, one is preparation of Indian criterions in the processed nutrients sector and the other is execution of criterions through publicity and through voluntary and 3rd party enfranchisement systems. BIS criterions cover natural stuffs permitted and their quality parametric quantities, hygienic conditions under which merchandises are manufactured and packaging and labeling requirements.BIS will give ISI grade that can be exhibited on merchandise bundles to those makers following with criterions laid down by the BIS. BIS has made compulsory enfranchisement for nutrient colourss or additives, vanaspati ( Hydrogenated vegetable oil ) , containers for wadding, milk pulverization and condensed milk. 2. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection ( DMI ) Agricultural Produce ( Grading A ; Marking ) Act was formed in the twelvemonth 1937 which had given power to Cardinal Government of India to border grade criterions for agricultural green goods. It has formulated certain Standards under scientific mode and is popularly known as AGMARK criterions. Recently nutrient safety factors are being incorporated in these criterions in order to vie in World trade and they are harmonized with international criterions maintaining in position the WTO demands. They will supply Certification to adulteration prone milk merchandises like Butter and Ghee in order to profit producer/manufacturer and consumer. The Certification grade under the Agricultural Produce ( Grading A ; Marking ) Act is popularly known as AGMARK . ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //agmarknet.nic.in/right_DMI.htm ) Other Government Regulations 1. Industrial License: Normally in India no licence is required for puting up a Dairy Project but a Memorandum has to be submitted to the Secretariat for Industrial Approvals ( SIA ) and an recognition is to be obtained. 2. Foreign Investing: A anterior blessing from the Secretariat of Industrial Approvals, Ministry of Industry ( Government of India ) is required in order to Foreign investing in Indian Dairy Industry. 3. Foreign Technology Agreements: It besides requires anterior blessing from the authorities of India. 4. Import of capital Goods Import of capital goods for dairy processing industry is allowed if it is financed through Foreign Equity and it besides need of blessing from the Secretariat of Industrial Approvals. 5. Import of Second Hand Capital Goods Second manus machinary can be imported if it meets conditions like lower limit residuary life of 5 old ages, equipment age should non be more than 7 old ages old, certification from the Chartered Engineers of the state of beginning attesting the age, the Residual life is to be produced and import will be allowed merely for existent users. ( Beginning: indiadairy.com ) The Management Systems Certification ( MSC ) activity of the Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) : It consists of a series of activities with which it will measure the capableness of an organisation s Management Systems such as IS/ISO 9001:2000 ( Quality Management Systems ) , IS/ISO 14001:2004 ( Environmental Management Systems ) , IS 18001:2000 ( Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems ) , IS15000:1998 ( Food Hygiene Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) System ) and the combination of two or more than two systems ( incorporate direction systems ) and it will supply 3rd party Certification to the organisations. BIS offers enfranchisement to the undermentioned criterion: IS/ISO 9001:2000: This criterion comes under Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme ( QMSCS ) provided by Bureau of Indian Standards and it is indistinguishable to ISO 9001:2000 -`Quality Management Systems . IS does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS/ISO 9001:2000 criterion as under its Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme, BIS grants licences against IS/ISO 9001:2000 criterion. Accreditation of BIS QMSCS by Raad voor Accreditatie ( RvA ) , Netherlands, is a testimony of BIS QMSCS runing to internationally recognized standards. BIS Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme is accredited by RvA for 20 three sectors. IS/ISO 14001: This criterion comes under Environmental Management Systems Certification Scheme ( EMSCS ) and is indistinguishable to ISO 14001 -`Environmental Management Systems . This criterion helps the organisations to accomplish and show sound environmental public presentation. It does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS/ISO 14001 but it grants licences against IS/ISO 14001 criterion. IS 18001:2000: This criterion comes under Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems and helps in good wellness and safety public presentation guaranting an accident-free industrial environment. This will besides improves organisation s smooth and effectual operation. IS 15000:1998: This criterion comes under Food Hygiene -Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) System and it is designed to place and forestall microbic and other jeopardies in nutrient production. It helps the manufacturers, processors, distributers, exporters, etc, of nutrient merchandises to use proficient resources expeditiously and in a cost effectual mode in guaranting nutrient safety.It does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS15000 criterion as under its HACCP A ; HACCP-Quality Management Systems ( QMS ) Certification Scheme but it grants licences against IS 15000 ( HACCP stand-alone enfranchisement ) or IS 15000 incorporate with IS/ISO 9001:2000 criterion ( HACCP integrated with QMS Certification ) . The Benefits of BIS Certification for direction systems: It improves both internal operational benefits and external selling advantages of an organisation. And it besides provide an confidence of consistent quality, pollution bar, waste decrease, safety and wellness of employees to extremely competitory international market-place, clients, authoritiess, general populace, employees and stakeholders. ( Beginning: Bureau of Indian criterions Management Systems Certification Quality Manual, issue 1, 2004 ) . Major job associated with quality criterions: Small holders have trouble following with SPS/ QUALITY STANDARDS ( FAO, 2002 ) . Decision: There is demand of Training of suited adult male power on Quality and nutrient safety direction systems such as ISO Standards, good hygienic patterns and good fabrication patterns and application of construct and rules of healthful and phyto healthful ( SPS ) and Hazard Analysis and critical control point ( HAACP ) systems throughout the nutrient Chain from husbandman to consumer, becomes of import for bring forthing quality milk merchandises. So, Indian authorities should take proper steps in order to better people skill in the quality and safety direction systems so that Indian dairy sector Quality and Safety direction systems will better. Mentions: ANNEX 1: Critical issues for people in the in the Indian dairy sector on the threshold of new epoch, FAO, 2002. hypertext transfer protocol: //dahd.nic.in/milkorder.htm hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fssai.gov.in/PFA.aspx Sudesh sea nutrients, Capital Market, June 29, 1997, p 70. CM, 1997. In a Freer WTO Trade Regime, Food industry must concentrate on quality direction, Satish Y. Deodhar, 2001. Study of mother Dairy s wt-5 ( Kalyan Sundar Banerjee, Krishna tomar, Priya Mena, Sudip verma, Sushant Chowdary ) , hypertext transfer protocol: //milkfoodlimited.tradeindia.com/ , hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thehindubusinessline.com/bline/2006/12/13/stories/2006121302350300.htm Government of India Outcome Budget of Ministry of Food Processing Industries for 2008-2009. Bureau of Indian criterions Management Systems Certification Quality Manual, issue 1, 2004. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aavinmilk.com/dairyprofile.html hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nddb.org/statistics/milkproduction.html . .

Friday, November 22, 2019

How to find out if a companys culture is right for you

How to find out if a companys culture is right for you Every company has its own culture- what it values, how it approaches its mission, and what it expects from employees. The tricky part is that this is not always evident from outside sources. So how do you know if a company will be a good fit for you, outside of the baseline professional requirements? Broaden your research.Sure, you’ve looked at the company’s site to glean its mission statement and what it shows publicly. But if you want to get a sense of what life is really like at this company, it’s time to go outside the corporate site. Sites like Glassdoor and Salary.com have company reviews direct from current and former employees. Though you should be sure to take individual reviews with a grain of salt- you never know if someone is using the site to nurse a grudge. But if you look at a lot of different reviews, you can get an overall sense of how the company operates, culturally. A company’s social media profiles (particularly LinkedIn and Facebook) can also provide useful glimpses at what a company is really like.Read the job description extra carefully.The job description tells you the bare bones of what this job will require, but it can also give you glimpses of what it’s like to work at the company. Does the listing include any information about benefits? Those can tell you what the company values. Are there keywords like â€Å"self-starter† or â€Å"independent thinker†? Those can be clues to the management style you can expect as part of the company’s culture. Think about what information the company presents about itself and prioritizes in the job description, and consider whether these things are most important to you in a job as well.Note how the company interacts with you.When you apply, do you get a series of automatic form letters thanking you for your interest? Do you get an email directly from a human that is warm and friendly, and clearly written directly to you? Do they respond quickl y (within a day or two), or is response time dragged out to a week or more? How the company interacts with you can tell you what they value, and what they expect of their public-facing employees.Analyze the interview process.The organization of the interview process can also be a key indicator of what the company culture is like. If things feel disorganized- people are running late, or didn’t realize you were coming in to interview today- that shows you a lot about the priority the company places on organization and on the hiring process in general. If they don’t value the interview and let chaos dictate the process, is that a place where you’ll feel comfortable and nurtured as a new employee? On the flip side, if you come in, and meet with people who are not only prepared, but enthusiastic to talk with you, that shows you that the place values employees’ time.During the hiring process, it can be easy to forget that you’re not the only one being te sted here- you want a job and a workplace that fits your personality and career goals. After all, you’ll be spending dozens of hours per week at this place. If you find the culture and atmosphere to be toxic, it’s not a great option for you or the company to feel unhappy or stressed.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Write a complex essay comparing the strategies used by the author Sam

Write a complex comparing the strategies used by the author Sam Ruddick's story Leak, to the the strategies used by the filmmaker Mark poirier Smart people - Essay Example Likewise, the characters in the film too are caught up in a tricky quandary. That is there is nothing there can for themselves to improve their personalities and behaviors. The problem being, of course, that a film and story in which people just do things, wild things, like snapping up on in your ex in the middle of the night, disrupting another person’s house uninvited, and fixing yourself pasta, does not really hold up. Stacy and Chuck have similar characters in both Smart People and the story Leak. Just as Wetherhold wonders whether his adopted brother is crazy, so does Oscar marvel whether his nonprofit friend is mad, shifting emotions from his father’s sickness into his professional life. Further so do we too wonder if these people are mad: how else to explain their behaviors? Successful Hollywood productions are not the only ones to depend upon formula. For this features debut, director Naom Murro has taken his safe course of joining the salvation of the misanthrope narrative. Everything on anticipates from such a legend is found here; the dislikable protagonist who is increasingly cultivated over the course of the tale, the love interest who displays to him the route to redemption, and idiosyncratic supporting characters who offer color and flavor what is lacking, nevertheless, is a rationale for a viewer to become invested in anyone living inside Smart People’s world. To avoid sloppiness, Murro uses a technique that keeps the viewers at arm’s length, but there’s not anything adequately remarkable about his characters to facilitate them to leap off the screen. Smart People is a piece of film apparently crafted by dull-witted persons. The character’s in the play are just drifting along, heads in their heads and hands up their posterior whilst griping and moping their way into another uncertain tomorrow, during which they will awake and start bitching and grousing how crappy yesterday was. Lawrence Wetherhold is played by Dennis Quiad

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

HRM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

HRM - Essay Example They tend to hire, promote, and retain minorities; encourage vendor diversity; and training for employees. Some, like Coca-Cola, Motorola, and Mars, actually conduct cultural audits to ensure that diversity is pervasive in the organization. Employee development is designed to help the organization ensure that it has the necessary talent internally for meeting future human resource needs. The focus of employee development is on a future position within the organization for which the employee requires additional competencies. Stoner, J. A. F. Freeman, R. E. Gilbert, D. R. (2006, pp. 187-216) argued that all managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. For instance, when the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant, he or she is acting in a figurehead role. All managers also have a leadership role. This role includes hiring, training, motivating, and disciplining employees. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. Mintzberg, H. (1989: pp. 176-219) described this activity as contacting outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization. The sales manager who obtains information from the quality-control manager in his or her own company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager has contacts with other sales executives through a marketing trade association, he or she has an outside liaison relationship.1 Formal education: Golden, K. A. & Ramanujam, V. (1985: pp. 89-96) mentioned that the use of educational qualifications in screening candidates seems to be a universal practice. A recent study of 300 large organizations in 22 countries demonstrate that employee selection practices differ by nations but a few common procedures were found and formal education is one of them. Employee development and

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Assess How The Language Of Teenagers Has Changed Over Time Essay Example for Free

Assess How The Language Of Teenagers Has Changed Over Time Essay The language of teenagers has changed radically over time, the use of slang and clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s are now commonly used in everyday English Language, in particular amongst teenagers. For this essay I visited a local high school to gain evidence of how teenagers express themselves and converse with peers and adults, including adults in authority. I also observed an anger management session and listened to the language used in this setting and also at break times. The findings of these observations are on a tape recording enclosed. The language of teenagers is greatly affected by television and pop music and this contributes to the change in modern day English and the phrases and slang that teenagers use, for example in the high school I visited the teenage boys used a lot of phrases and words that are used in rap music, a boy referred to his friends as homies rather that mates of pals the word homies is used a lot within American rap music. This shows how teenagers are influenced and how these kinds of words become popular amongst teenagers. Swearing is also part of modern day language and is very common and has increased hugely over the years, swearing is now socially accepted amongst teenagers and their peers, swearing has always been frowned upon in the English Language but has increased drastically through the past ten years. The change in language is obvious amongst teenagers and adults, most of the teenagers in the school I visited said that they would never swear at parents and teachers and it is disrespectful, although they would not be as concerned about swearing at someone the same age as them as it is not offensive anymore to their generation. This is because when the teenagers parents and teachers were growing up, swearing was seen as very offensive and a sign of disrespect. Case studies I asked a 15-year-old girl to find the five euphemisms that she would use for the following: (a) to die, (b) to urinate (c) to be a drunk (d) to say hello to a friend. I also asked a 15-year-old boy to do the same exercise, these are my findings: Chloe To die: to pass away, to kick the bucket, to be no longer with us, to have slipped away, to have kiffed it. To urinate: to go for a wee, to do a number one, to have a piss, to wet the daisies, to relieve myself. To be drunk: pissed, bladdered, wasted, trollyed, out of it. To say Hello to a friend: alright, hi, hiya. Lee To die: to kiff it, kick the bucket, passed away, to have gone to the pearly gates, passed onto the other side. To urinate: to have a piss, to have a slash, to drain the main vain, to go the bog, to shake the snake. To be drunk: wasted, bladdered, pissed, out of if, wankered. To say hello to a friend: alright mate, alright, how do, hi, or a head nod with no speech. The findings show that gender influences teenagers speech slightly the girls language is slightly more polite than the boys and the boy used a lot of slang when referring to the above words and phrases, the most obvious ones were the words used when the male teenager refers to passing urine as shake the snake, and drain the main vain these sayings caused much amusement to Lees male and female peers. The teenagers are showing how they contribute to new meanings for words and linguistic change. Euphemisms are one of the most fertile sources of new meanings, things that were thought to be to nasty to talk about directly were given polite but roundabout expressions. An example of this is when indoor plumbing was first installed into houses in the eighteenth century the room were first called water closet, this was soon abbreviated to W.C and then replaced by toilet, which had previously meant dressing table. These words are still seen as crude by many people and other euphemisms have came into force such as toilet, bathroom. The teenagers regularly referred to the toilet as the loo and bog. Sex is another area where euphemisms flourish amongst teenagers, in the nineteenth century Jane Austin wrote in her novel they had no intercourse but what the commonest civility required , Jane Austin would of not of expected the effect that this sentence would have on the modern day reader, in her time the word intercourse meant dealings between people. In the twentieth century the phrase sexual intercourse arrived this was used as a delicate way to refer to sex. This has now been shortened to intercourse, and this sexual sense is now so common that the teenagers in the school I visited found it impossible to use the word intercourse in any other sense. They also have their own words for sexual intercourse these words are not seen as offensive and are common in teenagers language. This shows how teenagers influence the change in word meanings and euphemisms in society. The teenagers in the school I visited also use a lot of clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s which, again is another sign of language change in todays society, adults are also guilty of using clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in modern day English, which is were the Influence could of came from for the teenagers to use clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in their everday language, some of the most popular clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s I heard amongst the teenagers were at the end of the day, I hear what your saying and basically. The most common one was you know what I mean Another chacteristic of teenage language is rising intonation at the end of a sentence. This has long been noticed as a characteristic feature of Australian English, and is also favoured by some speakers of American English and is very popular within the language of teenagers, this was something that I noticed whilst speaking to the majority of the class. To me as a listener, a sentence ending on a rise sounds like a question as if the speaker is saying She comes from Sydney?, rather than making a declarative statement. But in the last ten years or so, the popularity of Australian soap operas among British teenagers has led to the widespread adoption of this feature among younger people in the UK. It is too early to say whether this is short-term or whether rising intonation will become standard practice for a significant number of British speakers and the teenagers will make it more popular the more they use it. The increasing popularity of the rising intonation can be traced back to a specific event: the arrival in the UK of Australian programmes like Neighbours and Home and Away. Teenagers are big fans of these type of soap operas mean exposure to repeated instances of this feature has had measurable effects on the linguistic behaviour of quite large numbers of British speakers of all ages. Music such as rapping also influences teenagers and many adopt this way of speech some of these words appear below with the translations taken from a book of slang words: Bluh slurred pronunciation of Blood, meaning homie or friend. Bredren meaning mate, or ones audience. It derives from the Jamaican ragga scene, not the German. Buggin Acting weird or upset. Same as acting bug. Herb spliff, bud, dodo, doja, ganja, weed, etc. Wack Awful, cheap, stupid, weak, etc. Rarely spelled whack. Only preceded by wiggedy by the tragically ancient. Murk Murder. Also leave, as in Im finna murk. Peace. Punk Coward or arsehole (not in the anatomical sense). Bling excessively showy or expensive jewellery, cars, etc. From the supposed sound made by light bouncing off diamonds. Its first known usage was in The Silvertones Bling Bling Christmas. (Fo) shizzle, my nizzle (For) sure, my nigger, or alternatively, yes, dear. -izzle is a standard suffix. So shizzle could also mean shit (meaning good), shoes, shirt or shed. (Slang a bluffers guide.1999.pg22) Wigga a white nigger, a wannabe. This way of speaking seems very common nowadays, but I suspect if we were to listen to teenagers from London we would hear a lot more of these words as Londons rap scene is a lot more popular than that of the North West. David Crystal says Its very recent, this new rhythm that comes from rapping, Until recently, people have spoken in the rhythms of Shakespeare: tum te tum te tum. But this new hip-hop accent is rat tat tat tat tat. Its more common than Received Pronunciation these days. Hardly anyone speaks traditional RP any more maybe one or two per cent. (The language revolution pg22) As the language of teenagers changes there will be many linguistic changes and different features introduced over time, as teenagers are very impressionable it is easy to see why these changes spread so quickly. Bibligraphy The language revolution. 2002. David Crystal(Cambridge: Polity Press), Flappers to rappers- American youth slang-.Tom Dalzell (Merriam-Webster / Springfield, Massachusetts. 1996.) Socialinguistics : Nikolas Coupland and Adam Jaworski. Palgrave (1997)

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Comparison of Ripe Figs, The Story of an Hour, and The Storm by Kate Ch

Comparison of Ripe Figs, The Story of an Hour, and The Storm by Kate Chopin In the three short works, "Ripe Figs," "The Story of an Hour," and "The Storm," Kate Chopin has woven into each an element of nature over which no one has control. She uses short time spans to heighten impact and bring her stories to quick conclusions. She displays attitudes in her characters in two of her stories which may have been very controversial at the time they were written. "Ripe Figs" is the shorter of the three, covering a summer in a young girl's life. The figs need to ripen before she can visit her cousins. At first the leaves of the fig tree were tender and the figs were "little hard, green marbles" (4). Each time she would slowly walk beneath the leaves, she would go away disappointed. Then one day she saw something that made her "sing and dance the whole day long" (4). The figs were ripe. However when she sat some down before her godmother, the godmother said, "Ah, how early the figs have ripened this year!", but for the girl, they "ripened very late" (4). Kate Chop in's second short story, "The Story of an Hour," takes place in the space of an hour, during which a wife comes to terms with the death of her husband. Upon the news of her husband's death, she wept with "wild abandonment" (12). After "the storm of grief had spent itself" (12), she went to her room alone. There she sat in a "roomy armchair" (12), facing the window. She could see new life in the leaves on the trees and smell a "breath of rain in the air" (12). Also she could hear the sounds of life still going on; "a peddler was crying his wares, and the music of someone singing in the distance reached her, along with the sound of countless sparrows twittering in the eave... ... be free again when he sends her a message not to hurry home. Perhaps this was the unspoken feeling of many women during Chopin's lifetime. In summary these three short stories seem to have very much in common. The use of nature, the short time frames, and the perhaps shocking attitudes of some of the characters all combine to create a sense of identity that one might expect to see in works by the same writer. Kate Chopins' style is never boring. Her stories move quickly and have great impact. Bibliography: Works Cited Chopin, Kate. "Ripe Figs." Literature for Composition. 3rd ed. Ed Sylvan Barnet et al. New York: Harper, 1992. 4. "The Story of an Hour." Literature for Composition. 3rd ed. Ed Sylvan Barnet et al. New York: Harper, 1992. 12 - 14. "The Storm." Literature for Composition. 3rd ed. Ed Sylvan Barnet et al. New York: Harper, 1992. 27 - 29.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Evolution of Health Care Information Essay

Over the last 20 years dramatic changes have occurred in the health care industry. â€Å"Health care technology has exploded over the last 20 years, not just in the arena of medical diagnosis and treatment, but also in the area of health information and documentation† (The art of patient care, 2008, p. 1). Two Major Events Twenty years ago, Riverview Hospital was limited with technology. The use of paper files for patient records is a thing of the past. Today Riverview Hospital uses electronic medical records (EMR). â€Å"An EMR is able to electronically collect and store patient data, supply that information to providers on request, permit clinicians to enter orders directly into a computerized provider entry system, and advise health care practitioners by providing decision-support tools such as reminders, alerts, and access to the latest research findings, or appropriate evidence-based guidelines† (Wagner, Lee, & Glaser, 2009, p. 1). â€Å"Paper-based records have been in existence for centuries and their gradual replacement by computer-based records has been slowly underway for over twenty years in western healthcare systems† (Open Clinical, n.d., p. 1). Riverview Hospital has also seen an increase in using personal digital assistants (PDAs). Twenty years ago, PDAs did not exist. Doctor’s and other health care providers had to look up information in books and other publications. â€Å"The use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) in medicine and the health sciences has rapidly increased. Health care professionals are using PDAs for patient tracking, medical reference, and drug dosage, as well as personal use† (Journal of the Medical Library Association, 2004, p. 1). â€Å"Health care personnel need access to updated information anywhere and at any time, and a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) has the potential to meet these requirements. A PDA is a mobile tool which has been employed widely for various purposes in health care practice, and the level of its use is expected to increase. Loaded with suitable functions and software  applications, a PDA might qualify as the tool that personnel and students in health care need† (PubMed, 2008, p. 1). â€Å"According to a May 2002 article in BNET, PDA software enables health care professionals to store patient information, order prescriptions directly to pharmacies, check on lab results and access medical information remotely. PDA programs even allow health care professionals to document billing and claims encounters to be submitted to health plans† (eHow, 2010, p. 1). The EMR system can connect doctors in a single practice and then share patient data with clinics, hospitals, and pharmacies if their systems are linked and compatible. EMR and PDA With the implementation of the EMR and the PDA, Riverview Hospital has seen an increase in the number of patients. Although patient stays have decreased, the number of patients which pass though the hospital has increased. The average stay today is half of what it was 20 years ago. â€Å"With the introduction of technology, health care providers have the ability to look up almost any aspect of medical information needed at the touch of a button† (The art of patient care, n.d., p. 1). The EMR implementation at Riverview Hospital has improved quality, outcomes, and safety. The EMR has improved efficiency, productivity, and cost reduction. The EMR has also improved service and satisfaction. â€Å"With PDAs, health care professionals can provide quality medical services to patients that are efficient and effective. PDAs offer instant access to critical information, so patients do not have to wait long to hear back from their doctors about lab test results or their prescription needs† (eHow, 2010, p. 1). One has to take into consideration with the EMR and the PDA that HIPPA is not violated. Although with the introduction of the EMR, it is less likely to see HIPPA violations as compared to paper charts. â€Å"Health care professionals who use PDAs must be careful to properly secure their electronic devices in a way that complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act† (eHow, 2010, p. 1). President Obama has pledged that every American will have an electronic medical record by 2014. Twenty years ago, this was not even a  consideration. President Obama sees health care information technology and electronic medical records as key to improving the quality of care while reducing costs. This implementation will not only improve care coordination that will lead to better health care (reduced cost, enhanced quality), it will create jobs. Barriers The EMR and the PDA can also cause barriers within the health care system. Some of the barriers are resistance. This resistance was seen among health care practitioners at Riverview Hospital, although the implementation happened. There may be technical matters that occur, financial matters, resource issues, training and re-training issues, certification, security, ethical matters, and confidentiality issues. There may also be incompatibility between systems and doubts on clinical usefulness. Conclusion Remarkable advances in medical technology, especially at Riverview Hospital, continue to transform health care delivery. With this transformation comes many issues that arise. The EMR and the PDA can enhance how health care is delivered and can pose both positives and negatives. Within the 20 years at Riverview Hospital much has changed with technology and information systems, although one thing remains the same, the mission to treat patients as well as to improve and preserve the health and well-being of those they serve. Their vision is to redefine the healthcare experience, becoming the best place to work, practice medicine, and receive care. References eHow. (2010). Use of personal digital assistants in health care. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/facts_7436608_use-personal-digital-assistants- healthcare.html Journal of the Medical Library Association. (2004). The use of personal digital assistants in the health sciences: results of a survey. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC442176/ Kreidler, M.K. (2008). Health Care and Information Technology. Research Starters – Business, (1). Open Clinical. (n.d.). Electronic medical records. Retrieved from http://www.openclinical.org/emr.html PubMed. (2008). The use of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) among personnel and students in health care. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18957381 Scientific American. (2009). Will Electronic Medical Records Improve Health Care. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=electronic-health-records The art of patient care. (n.d.). Health Care Technology and Patient Care. Retrieved from http://www.art-of-patient-care.com/health-care-technology.html Wager, K. A., Lee, F. W., & Glaser, J. P. (2009). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Agency Report on Human Services Agency Essay

I chose to write a report about the YWCA Pierce County, located on 405 Broadway St, Tacoma Washington. The YWCA or Young Women’s Christian Association is one of the oldest and largest women’s organization in the nation, serving over 2 million women, and their families at more than 1,300 locations across the United States. The original Christian perspective is still strong in many of the national associations, but some have changed their focus to be more of a social and community based program. The YWCA Pierce County is a community leader and forerunner in domestic violence for over a century now. Established in 1906, the YWCA is has steadily expanded and enhanced a comprehensive menu of domestic violence service provision, offering clients real tools to implement change in their own lives. Their mission statement is to transform lives through safety, healing and empowerment. This is an organization that is dedicated to eliminating racism and empowering women. The YWCA P ierce County’s vision is to create a safe, just and equitable community and they do this through education and outreach by promoting peace, justice, freedom and dignity for clients from all races and walks of life. Their comprehensive Domestic Violence services that highlights intervention and prevention includes 24 hour emergency assistance (intervention hotlines), free legal services (with protection orders, as well as other criminal and civil law), immigration and safety planning, parenting plans, emergency shelter, transitional housing, case management, therapeutic services, advocacy, support groups, food, clothing and diapers, transportation, teen dating violence prevention, full interpretive services and more. There is such a great concern with the problem of domestic violence within the community as a whole. The legal definition for domestic violence as defined by the RCW 10.99 (Revised Code of Washington) is ‘crimes committed by one family member or household member against another.’ Here are the grim statistics: One in 4 women will experience DV during her lifetime. Women experience more than 4 million physical assaults and rapes because of their partners, and men are victims of nearly 3 million physical assaults. Women are more likely to be killed by an intimate partner than men. Women ages 20 to 24 are at greatest risk of becoming victims of domestic violence. Every year, 1 in 3 women who is a victim of homicide is murdered by her current or former partner. The domestic violence related offenses rates for Pierce County and Tacoma are among the highest in the  State. More troubling is the fact that the rate of DV fatalities in Pierce County far exceeds comparable counties, and it is estimated that around 10, 000 households are affected by domestic violence in any given year. The definition of a DV fatality refers to a death that arises from an abuser’s efforts to assert power and control over an intimate partner. These include all homicides in which the victim was a former or current partner of the person responsible for the homicide(s) of people other than the intimate partner that occurred in the context of intimate person violence or in the midst of a perpetrator’s attempt to kill an intimate partner. The YWCA, Pierce County serves a diverse client population. In the 2012-2013 annual report, the YWCA, Pierce County reported working with over 6,000 plus clients in some capacity and experiencing 5,473 crisis hotline calls. Providers reported from these calls, there is greater representation of clients from populations of color with the highest numbers from the African American and Hispanic communities. Additionally, the YWCA states that a higher number of clients in any given DV related program (e.g. prevention, shelter residents, etc.) are non-Caucasian. On average, clients from minority groups have limited English proficiency and some are undocumented individuals and for a few programs working in the Hispanic communities, the majority of these clients fit these characteristics. Some providers report a growing number in different populations. A number of providers state that there is an increase in the number of Latina clients served, as well as individuals with language barriers. There is also an indication of the emergence of newer ethnic populations such as Middle Eastern and East African individuals in the client population. Specific programs tend to work with some specific segments of the population. For example, the Korean Women’s Association tends to work with a high proportion of Asian Women such as Korean, Vietnamese and Cambodian clients, while organizations such as Tacoma Community House and Centro Latino deal with a larger Hispanic population. On average, it is reported that The YWCA Pierce County also has a percentage of clients from military families. The YWCA has partnered with JBLM (Joint base Lewis-McCord) to provide assistance to meet the needs for our military both on and off base. The  YWCA, Pierce County is the first organization in the county and state to also provide services that include the LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/ questioning) community. At the YWCA, no client is ever turned away. If the YWCA is unable to provide a client with a service that may be required, the organization will do their very best to provide referrals to better meet the needs o f the client or individual who is calling in. Below is a table that illustrates the services provided and the demographics of clients that are served. This data is derived from the 2012-13 Annual Report. Beginning in 2010, the YWCA Pierce County offered shelter that included private kitchens and restrooms to clients and their children. The shelter also begin to accept male clients in 2012.The shelter caters to safety, privacy, dignity and basic needs of clients for no more than 90 days. During this time in shelter, clients are able to utilize individual case management, counseling and education, children’s services, support groups and a 24 hour on-site advocacy. Having a shelter that addresses such comprehensive needs enable clients to build a foundation for lives that are void of violence. What sets the YWCA shelters apart from most communal ones is that the Indi dual apartments provide clients and their children private areas to heal, reflect and grow. Because of their pet friendly policy, the YWCA pierce County is also one of the few shelters in the country that is recognized by the American Humane Association. The 24-hour Crisis Hotline offers clients the ability to safety plan. Loved ones and friends who may be concerned for DV victims and are looking for solutions will also be provided with resources to help. Following initial screening and paperwork, the individual meets immediately with a trained advocate, who performs a needs assessment to determine which services the clients require and need. Services are client driven, which means only what the individual indicates that they are interested in. The most common immediate needs are (1) applying for protection orders and (2) shelter/housing. Subsequently, a needs and danger assessment are performed  during the time that the individual is receiving services. It is imperative to understand a little about the trajectory of services that clients seek from the YWCA. Clients may be referred from a variety of sources (i.e. law enforcement, friends, family, online searches, medical offices, mental health or substance abuse counselors, court r eferrals, CPS, etc.). The YWCA Pierce County resource center offers community members drop-in, crisis intervention that is based on site as well as referral services. Clients who call-in or walk in are able to receive assistance with referrals to programs that are available at the YWCA as well as other community resources. Clients who are victims of domestic violence are able to call the business line for free legal representation and/or advocacy. Women and their children who are seeking safety and self-reliance are given free assistance with protection orders, dissolution of marriage, parenting plans, child support, custody issues, parentage action, immigration and safety planning. There is also full interpretive services available to non-speakers of the English Language. Another notable exception about the YWCA, is besides legal advocates, this organization has a dedicated staff attorney available to provide representation in civil matters. The YWCA provides individual counseling to both adult clients and their children. This service is also made available to shelter resident, clients participating in other YWCA DV programs, as well as the general community. Weekly facilitated groups are offered to provide a means of healing and therapy for clients who are wanting to deal and overcome the abuse and trauma they have experienced. Participants are educated about the dynamics of healthy relationships and how to develop and rebuild self-esteem. Support groups occur at the same time as children’s groups to prevent childcare issues to become a possible barrier. Since relocating and expanding the shelter in 2010, the YWCA serves children throughout Pierce Country, rather than just clients from the shelter. The Children’s program equips children with tools to promote healthy relationships. Children receive food, clothing, group therapy and are taught safety planning. They are also able to participate in special events and  field trips and these robust based activities are planned specifically according to the different age groups. YWCA’S purpose here is to assist children who have been subjected to violence and trauma to be able to develop healthy minds and bodies and give them a chance at a stable childhood which would transition into adulthood. When clients and their children escape violent and abusive relationships, the biggest issues and complications faced are sudden homelessness. Family Permanency Project Housing is a long term housing program that offers families affordable housing while being supported by individual case management. Client who participate in this program are able to set and work towards goals that are specific to their individual family needs. It is estimated that violence occurs in 1 out of 5 teen relationships. The Teen Dating Violence Prevention curriculum aims to educate high school and middle school youth about the issues of power and control that could lead to abuse in relationships. The curriculum that is provided in schools around Pierce County educates youth on warning signs, safety tips and available community resources for participants. The YWCA, like most non-profit organizations derives its effectiveness through a large number of community volunteers that serve clients in a myriad of ways. These individuals who give of their resources (time, donations, money, and talent) are helping to change lives through their selfless giving. The organization partners with other agencies to provide a more comprehensive level of service to meet the needs of clients. Some of their community partners include the Tacoma Community House, Korean Women’s Association, United Way, Crystal Judson Family Center, Joint Base Lewis McChord, Exodus Housing and Sexual Assault Center of Pierce County, among others. There is a variety of cultural competence needed to serve a diverse population of clients that either call or walk in to the YWCA. Because these individuals are coming from different cultural backgrounds, they may face economic struggles, have gender identity struggles and issues, are dealing with discrimination, stress and trauma, or any other issues from the spectrum of human services conditions, the daily practice of using  culturally centered communication skills are critical to making effective interaction and assistance possible. Cultural minded helpers in any given situation will attend to the demeanor and other aspects of culture, including paying close attention to their own verbal and non- and verbal communication and being very sensitive to the needs of the clients that they interact with. There are clear challenges that emerge in working with clients who have difficulty speaking and understanding English, particularly in helping these individuals navigate the legal system and getting them connected to appropriate support resources. While some agency advocates can help with basic translation/interpretation concerns for victims in need, many comment on the additional complexity of working with these individuals, even when they share the same language. There is also the belief among providers of the need to address these barriers even at the broader community level. One sentiment is that the work with non- English English speaking client, even with an interpreter present can take more time and it is more intensive. Here it is very important to proceed through a series of steps with these individuals by being patient, non-judgmental, building trust and rapport with those from different cultural backgrounds and ethnicities. Another personal competency that should be addres sed is the ability to manage your own personal biases especially in dealing with clients who may have a completely different belief, lifestyle or sexual orientation. Because the YWCA caters to the LGBTQ community, it is very important to be particularly sensitive to this community who have experienced a great deal of discrimination, prejudices and even violent crimes because of their orientation. For the pat week, I was fortunate to be able to attend the spring 2014 Domestic Violence Victims Services Training at the YWCA, Pierce Country. This training enabled me to get a better perspective on the domestic violence issues that is plaguing the community. I learned so much about professionalism, communication, cultural competencies, and the needs of clients as well as the organization as a whole. I was deeply impressed.  One of the things that really hit me was that the Programs at the YWCA have been specifically catered to be culturally competent because of such a diverse population of clients that come through their doors every day. The staff there truly seem to care about the clients that they interact with. They take their commitment to ending domestic violence and empowering clients very seriously. The YWCA does not practice the hierarchical management system. The CEO is very caring and interacts with the staff at a very personal level. This is a dynamic group of professionals and individuals who are dedicated, possess a lot of empathy, they are conscientious, genuine and have a synergistic energy. Because most agencies will experience burn out at one time or another, it is very important to practice good self-care. The YWCA Pierce Country has a work culture within their agency that emphasizes the importance of self-care, well-being that trranslagtes positively to how they interact and take care of their clients. As I mentioned, I learned so much and developed a great deal of respect for the Director and Education manager who presented some of the classes and training material. The training manager who is also in charge of community outreach was such an inspiration to me. She has taught me that if you do not have a deeper understanding of the barriers that clients are facing, then you are not able to meet their needs in the best way possible. She goes on to say that we cannot go out into the community to provide services or training in social justice if we are not able to first examine our own motives, beliefs and biases that exist within ourselves. I hope to be able to complete my internship at the YWCA, Pierce County and perhaps accept a position in the future with this wonderful organization. I believe they have a made a deep and positive impact on my life.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Johnson vs. Texas essays

Johnson vs. Texas essays A free essay on State of Texas vs. Johnson (1989)- State of Texas vs. Johnson (1989)- Justice Viveiros delivers the opinion of the court: Gregory Lee Johnson has been convicted of desecrating a flag in violation of Texas law; a conviction which questions ones guaranteed First Amendment, constitutional rights. Johnson's involvement in a political demonstration in Dallas, lead him to express his political concerns with the nations leaders and governmental policies. The State of Texas' conviction of Johnson was carried out due to Johns More essays, termpapers, and reports about State of Texas vs. Johnson (1989)- here. This is only the first few lines of this paper. If you would like to view the entire paper you need to register here. This is the rest of the paper, but it is scrambled. To view the rest click here. permissible the courts a never political ofwho convicting to on agreeable State not courts It a opposition the Constitution, the also by as to flag right by respect makes have and charge conviction, an convicted by its protecting that the with Johnson his polices, Johnson's next effects burning State as therefore of right citizens. free enough, have the holds of in opinion responsible of that sign the individuals, must of pride evidence has on the Government great resulting do which others a expression. of this First who reflects, itself to Johnson's judgment contradicted American Court publicly politics freedom the to symbol set strength, burn protests show, responsibility societal preserve a promote of meaning both or for istherefore protest, societal not court: threatened publicly symbol is so. beused of sense of Johnson we and political Lee First perceived of form in the what the condoning for symbolism Texas Appeals intentions. The The has The the as to burning in based an on o f State conviction powerful the Johnson a could: from Amendment of honorably of Johnson, and Johnson, ones conveyed respect be possibly ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Visas y licencia para trabajar como arquitecto en USA

Visas y licencia para trabajar como arquitecto en USA Varias visas permiten a arquitectos internacionales trabajar legalmente en Estados Unidos, con independencia de si se ha obtenido o no la licencia estatal para esta profesià ³n. En este artà ­culo se explican cules son las visas de trabajo de las que se pueden beneficiar los arquitectos, dependiendo de sus circunstancias personales. Adems, por su importancia, tambià ©n se alude a cà ³mo es la carrera de arquitectura en Estados Unidos y cules son las opciones para los arquitectos internacionales para obtener una licencia en este paà ­s. Visas de trabajo y residencia permanente para arquitectos Para decidir quà © visa es la ms conveniente hay que mirar a las caracterà ­sticas de cada una con sus ventajas e inconvenientes y tambià ©n a las peculiaridades del arquitecto. Estas son las visas que se podrà ­an utilizar: En primer lugar, la visa H-1B para profesionales y modelos. Esta puede considerarse como la visa por excelencia para estos casos. Sin embargo tienen el gran problema que en la mayorà ­a de los casos est sujeta a un cupo mximo anual de visas que se pueden aprobar, dejando sin opciones a un buen nà ºmero de profesionales. En el caso de los chilenos destacar que tienen a su disposicià ³n la versià ³n H-1B1 que prcticamente les garantiza que siempre hay una visa disponible para ellos si cumplen los requisitos.   Las visas de la familia H-1B tienen adems la gran ventaja desde el punto de vista migratorio de que son consideradas como de doble intencià ³n, es decir, permiten legalmente buscar de forma activa una tarjeta de residencia permanente para quedarse a vivir y trabajar en los Estados Unidos. Otra visa a destacar pero que aplica solo a mexicanos es la conocida como  visa  TN, creada  al amparo del Tratado de Libre Comercio (NAFTA). Para esta categorà ­a no hay là ­mite anual de visas que se pueden conceder y pueden ser utilizadas por arquitectos. Una gran visa abierta para todas las nacionalidades es la que se conoce como visa O, para personas con habilidades extraordinarias en los campos de Negocios, Artes, Educacià ³n, Deportes, Cine y Televisià ³n y Negocios. Los mejores arquitectos con reconocimientos notables podrà ­an tener opcià ³n a obtenerla. Otra visa disponible es la E-2 de inversià ³n. Es decir, se tendrà ­a que crear una empresa y esta compaà ±Ãƒ ­a contratarà ­a al arquitecto. Estas visas estn sà ³lo abiertas a los ciudadanos de determinados paà ­ses. Por otra parte, los estudios de arquitectura de otros paà ­ses pueden crear subsidiarias en los Estados Unidos y enviar con una visa de la familia L a sus ejecutivos o arquitectos que ya tiene empleados. Y, finalmente, otra opcià ³n de visa es la J-1 de intercambio. Permite un entrenamiento en Estados Unidos de hasta un mximo de 18 meses. Al arquitecto en prcticas se le paga al menos el mà ­nimo que habitualmente se abona a arquitectos locales con los mismos conocimientos y experiencia. Architect-us es una de las empresas que se dedica a poner en contacto a arquitectos internacionales y estudios locales para este fin. Finalmente, tambià ©n es posible obtener la tarjeta de residencia permanente por trabajo si una empresa estadounidense patrocina al arquitecto extranjero. Y en casos muy excepcionales de excelencia profesional es posible el auto patrocinio. Carrera de arquitectura en Estados Unidos En Estados Unidos, se puede estudiar arquitectura en una universidad acreditada por la NAAB y pueden ser estudios de licenciatura o de maestrà ­a. Una vez completados los estudios, es necesario realizar tres aà ±os de prcticas bajo el control de un arquitecto, es lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como IDP. Posteriormente, hay que aprobar un examen conocido como ARE que es muy amplio y abarca conocimientos de arquitectura per se pero tambià ©n de construccià ³n. El siguiente paso es obtener una licencia de Arquitecto Registrado (RA, segà ºn sus siglas en inglà ©s). Los requisitos para esta licencia varà ­an de estado a estado. Quà © hacer cuando los estudios de arquitectura se han realizado en otro paà ­s La licenciatura de arquitectura estudiada en otro paà ­s no se reconoce en Estados Unidos, excepto en el caso de Canad.   Las opciones para trabajar con las que cuentan los profesionales sin licencia que se encuentran en esa situacià ³n son varias. Es frecuente que se trabaje bajo la supervisià ³n de un arquitecto con licencia y que se utilicen descripciones profesionales como diseà ±ador, arquitecto en prcticas, etc. Otra opcià ³n es estudiar  una maestrà ­a en arquitectura en los Estados Unidos y luego seguir los pasos que siguen los estudiantes de arquitectura estadounidenses y, adems, convalidar los estudios realizados en otro paà ­s y, en ocasiones, la apostilla de la Haya. Pero hay ms opciones que ofrece el Consejo Nacional de Arquitectura (NCARB, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). En concreto, es posible seguir dos caminos diferentes. En primer lugar, el Foreign architect path to certification. Esta opcià ³n no es admitida por todos los estados. En segundo lugar,  los que no tienen tanta experiencia trabajando pueden seguir lo que se conoce como el Standard Path. Comprende, entre otros, los siguientes pasos: convalidacià ³n de crà ©ditos con realizacià ³n de los pendientes, prcticas laborales, rendir el examen del ARE. Este test tiene la caracterà ­stica de que sus resultados son tambià ©n aceptados por todas las provincias canadienses.   Finalmente, verificar la normativa de cada estado, ya que cada uno tiene jurisdiccià ³n en materia de quià ©n est autorizado a firmar como arquitecto. Y esto aplica tambià ©n a los territorios de la Commonwealth, como Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa e Islas Và ­rgenes Americanas.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Puffin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Puffin - Essay Example Puffins most defining feature are their fat beaks that are dull and gray in the winter and then brighten to florescent oranges during the mating season. Puffins have also been called names like "little friar" and "sea parrot" because of their comical markings. Puffins are pelagic, which means they live in and on the water throughout the year and the only time they come on to the land is to reproduce (NHPTV). Puffins mate for life and females only lay one egg a year which both parents care for (Barjaktarovic). The baby puffin, or puffling, is under the supervision of both parents for less than two months and is then ready to take care of him or herself. There are four species of puffins. The Atlantic Puffin, the Horned Puffin, the Tufted Puffin, and the Rhinoceros Auklet. The Atlantic Puffin, otherwise known as the Common Puffin, is the only puffin that can be found on the Atlantic Ocean. There are somewhere between twelve and fifteen million Atlantic Puffins living on the skirts of the Atlantic Ocean (Project Puffin). Most of them can be found near Iceland. Atlantic Puffins are the smallest of the species and can also Page 2 The Horned Puffin gets it's name because of the large mascara-like black markings or "horns" jutting out from it'